22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a congenital disorder caused as a result of a partial deletion of chromosome 22. Here is the latest research.
Alagille syndrome is a multi-system genetic disorder that can affect the liver, heart, and other parts of the body. It’s characterization includes heart problems, liver damage, jaundice, and xanthomas. Here is the latest research.
Aneurysms are outward distensions or bulges that occurs in a weakened wall of blood vessels. Discover the latest research on aneurysms here.
Understanding the mechanism of action of antiarrhythmic agents is essential in developing new medications as treatment of cardiac arrhythmias is currently limited by the reduced availability of safe and effective drugs. Discover the latest research on Antiarrhythmic Agents: Mechanism of Action here.
An aortic aneurysm is the weakening and bulging of the blood vessel wall in the aorta. This causes dilatation of the aorta, which is usually asymptomatic but carries the risk of rupture and hemorrhage. Find the latest research on aortic aneurysms here.
Aortic coarctation is a congenital condition characterized by narrowing of the aorta. Discover the latest research on this disease here.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a protein involved in fat metabolism and associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. Here is the latest research on APOE phenotypes.
Arrhythmias are abnormalities in heart rhythms, which can be either too fast or too slow. They can result from abnormalities of the initiation of an impulse or impulse conduction or a combination of both. Here is the latest research on arrhythmias.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the right ventricle wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of the right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Discover the latest research on arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia here.
Arterial-venous development may play a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. Here is the latest research.
Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque on artery walls, causing stenosis which can eventually lead to clinically apparent cardiovascular disease. Find the latest research on atherosclerosis disease progression here.
Athletic heart syndrome refers to the physiological and morphological changes that occur in a human heart after repetitive strenuous physical exercise. Here is the latest research.
Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly due to stroke and thromboembolism. Here is the latest research.
Sensitive and accurate biomarkers used in cardiovascular risk prediction can potentially be used to manage the risk of cardiovascular disease. Discover the latest research on Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment here. Discover the latest research on Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment here.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.
Coagulation is the process by which a blood clot is formed. This process includes both the formation of a platelet plug as well as a cascade of clotting factors resulting in the formation of fibrin strands. Find the latest research on coagulation signaling pathways here.
Bradyarrhythmias are slow heart rates. Symptoms may include syncope, dizziness, fatigure, shortness of breath, and chest pains. Find the latest research on bradyarrhythmias here.
Over 1700 different mutations in the CFTR genes have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. Here is the latest research on structural therapy for CFTR mutants.
This feed focuses on the association of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Cardiac amyloidosis is a myocardial disease characterized by extracellular amyloid infiltration throughout the heart. Discover the latest research on cardiac amyloidosis here.
Aneurysm refers to a bulge of the wall or lining of a vessel commonly occurring in the blood vessels at the base of the septum or within the aorta. In the heart, it usually arises from a patch of weakened tissue in a ventricular wall, which swells into a bubble filled with blood. Discover the latest research on cardiac aneurysm here.
Cardiac cachexia is a syndrome associated with the progressive loss of muscle and fat mass. It most commonly affects patients with heart failure and can significantly decrease the quality of life and survival in these patients. Here is the latest research on cardiac cachexia.
The cardiac conduction system is a specialized tract of myocardial cells responsible for maintaining normal cardiac rhythm. Discover the latest research on the cardiac conduction system here.
Cardiac electrophysiology is the study of electrical activities of the heart and includes the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac events. Find the latest research on cardiac electrophysiology here.
Cardiac glycosides are a diverse family of naturally derived compounds that bind to and inhibit na+/k+-atpase. Discover the latest research on cardiac glycosides heres.
Cardiac organoids are 3D organ-like structures that can be derived from patients with cardiovascular diseases and are important disease models for drug discovery. Discover the latest research on Cardiac Organoids here.
Cardiac regeneration enables the repair of irreversibly damaged heart tissue using cutting-edge science, including stem cell and cell-free therapy. Discover the latest research on cardiac regeneration here.
Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction is characterized by progressive ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and deterioration of cardiac performance. Discover the latest research on Cardiac Remodeling here.
Cardiogenic shock is a devastating consequence of acute myocardial infarction and is associated with an extremely high mortality. Here is the latest research.
Cardiomegaly, known as an enlarged heart, is a multifactorial disease with different pathophysiological mechanisms. Hypertension, pregnancy, exercise-induced and idiopathic causes are some mechanisms of cardiomegaly. Discover the latest research of cardiomegaly here.
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle, that can lead to muscular or electrical dysfunction of the heart. It is often an irreversible disease that is associated with a poor prognosis. There are different causes and classifications of cardiomyopathies. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to this disease.
Cardiotoxicity refers to the muscle damage or dysfunction of heart electrophysiology caused by drug intake or due to disease complications. It is a well-known side effect of several cytotoxic drugs, especially of the anthracyclines and can lead to long term morbidity. Here is the latest research.
Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of deaths globally. Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2)-mediated hematopoiesis has been implicated in accelerating heart failure. Here is the latest research on cardiovascular diseases and TET2.
Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.
Cardiovascular disease is a significant health concern. Risk factors include hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Women who are postmenopausal are at an increased risk of heart disease. Here is the latest research for risk factors of cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular regulation and homeostasis is important in maintaining health and dysfunction may lead to cardiovascular diseases. Nitric oxide and vascular endothelium are one of many molecules involved in the homeostatic mechanism. Here is the latest research on cardiovascular homeostasis.
Inflammation plays a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, an understanding of these endogenous processes is critical for evaluating the risks and potential treatment strategies. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular inflammation here.
Cardiovascular risk prediction models based on classical risk factors identified in epidemiological studies are useful in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals. Here is the latest research.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease is an important health initiative. Risk reduction including physical activity, smoking cessation, diet, blood pressure lowering drugs and pharmacotherapy. Here is the latest research on cardiovascular risk reduction.
Cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelium and circulating leukocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli are implicated in atherosclerosis. Here is the latest research.
Cerebrovascular disease is an important cause of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly patients. Discover the latest research on cerebrovascular disease here.
Childhood vascular tumors are formed from cells related to blood vessels or lymph vessels. Here is the latest research on the genetics of childhood vascular tumors.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) is a progressive respiratory disease associated with increasing morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in arteries of the lung. The underlying cause include blood clots and related scarring. Discover the latest research on this disease here.
Congenital heart diseases are present since birth and are a result of improper development of the heart. Prenatal diagnosis on screening ultrasound can detect these defects and better techniques for surgical repair have improved the life expectancy of those born with these diseases. Discover the latest research on congenital heart diseases here.
Coronary artery aneurysms are the dilation of the coronary arteries that supply the heart tissue with blood and nutrients. The dilation exceeds 1.5 times the normal artery size. Complications can occur if these aneurysms rupture. Here is the latest research on coronary artery aneurysms.
Coronary artery disease is extremely prevalent in western societies and is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality industrialized countries. Known risk factors include hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. Discover the latest research on coronary artery disease here.
Coronary vasospasm is the abnormal contraction of the coronary arteries on the epicardium. The constriction can lead to myocardial ischemia and life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Discover the latest research on coronary vasospasms here.
Coronary vessel anomalities are malformations of the coronary vessel, either arteries or veins. Discover the latest research on coronary vessel anomalities here.
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease, which is the result of a genetic defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) gene. Here is the latest research on this disease
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can be a serious life-threatening condition if not treated. DVT results from a clot forming in one of the deep veins, usually in the lower leg. If the clot breaks free it can lead to a pulmonary embolism and/or post-thrombotic syndrome. Here is the latest research on DVT.
A dissecting aneurism is an injury in which blood enters between the intima and tunica media of the aortic wall. Often, the aorta is affected, and this is referred to as an aortic dissection. This may result in hemorrhage or in vessel occlusion and insufficient blood supply. Management is often both medical and surgical. Find the latest research on dissecting aneurisms here.
Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital heart defect in which the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth: this allows a portion of oxygenated blood from the left heart to flow back to the lungs by flowing from the aorta, which has a higher pressure, to the pulmonary artery. Discover the latest research on patent ductus arteriosus here.
Embolic diseases can result in serious complications, depending where the emboli travels and organs that it affects. Thromboembolisms arise from pieces of a blood clot breaking free. Treatment and prevention involves anticoagulants for the different types of embolic diseases. Here is the latest research on embolic diseases.
Endocardial fibroelastosis is a disease characterized by a prominent proliferation of dense collagenous and elastic tissue in the endocardium with the occurrence of congestive heart failure and death in early life. Here is the latest research.
An endoleak is a leak into the aneurysm sac after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). There are 5 types of endoleaks. Discover the latest research on endoleaks here.
Endothelial cells line the vasculature as a monolayer and play an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Find the latest research on endothelial cell biology here.
Endothelin receptors are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate smooth muscle contraction or relaxation which in turn regulate blood pressure. Discover the latest research on endothelins and their receptors here.
A broad look at epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases, ranging from GWAS to population studies. Here is the latest research.
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is important in determining cell fate and identity, and may be factor in altering risk or progression of cardiovascular disease. Discover the latest research on Epigenetic Regulation of Cardiovascular Disease here.
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is important in determining cell fate and identity, and is a factor in stem cell studies involving cardiomyocyte differentiation. Discover the latest research on Epigenetics in Cardiomyocyte Differentiation here.
Blood pressure is tightly regulated by blood vessel radius, which is established by hormones and/or peptides binding to GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors). Discover the latest research on GPCRs in blood pressure regulation here
Gene therapy is emerging as a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart disease, restenosis after angioplasty, vascular bypass graft occlusion and transplant-associated coronary artery disease. Discover the latest research on gene therapy for cardiovascular diseases here.
Understanding the genetic regulation of cardiac development and function is crucial in generating future therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases. Discover the latest research on Genetic Regulation of Heart Development & Function here.
Genome editing is a powerful tool to study specific mutations or genes involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Discover the latest research on Genome Editing in Cardiovascular Disease here.
HF-pEF is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and has significant mortality and morbidity. The heterogeneity of the disease has resulted in the failure of any drugs for the treatment of HF-pEF. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to this disease.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-rEF) is responsible for high costs and increased rates of hospital admissions along with high mortality and morbidity risks. Only treatment for HF-rEF has been shown to be efficacious compared to HF-pEF which currently has no useful treatment options. Here is the latest research on HF-rEF.
Cardiovascular disease (cvd) is an increasing concern for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients. Here is the latest research.
Heart arrhythmias, also known as irregular heartbeat or cardiac dysrhythmia, are a group of conditions where the heartbeat is irregular (dysrhythmia), too slow (bradycardia), or too fast (tachycardia). Discover the latest research on heart rhythm and arrythmias here.
Heart septal defects occur when the walls separating the different chambers of the heart are not completely closed off, leaving holes that can potentially lead to heart failure. Discover the latest research on heart septal defects here.
Heart transplantation is a surgical means of replacing a recipient's heart with a healthier organ. Find the latest research in heart transplantation here.
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation and bleeding in various tissues or organs. Discover the latest research on Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia here.
Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare condition in which abdominal organs are formed in abnormal locations within the chest cavity. Discover the latest research on heterotaxy syndrome here.
Recent surgical advances have led to an increase in the survival rates of infants born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which is the incomplete formation of the left side of the heart. Discover the latest research here.
Iliac aneurysm is the weakness and bulging in the iliac artery wall which can be caused as a result of atherosclerosis, infections, or trauma from hip or lower-back surgery. Here is the latest research.
An infected aneurysm is a bulge on a weakened blood vessel wall that has become infected. Treatment includes antibiotics and surgical intervention. Find the latest research on infected aneurysms here.
Inflammation in the vasculature permits the migration of leukocytes through the vascular wall to resolve injury. However, unresolved inflammation is also pathogenic in such conditions as atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, or vasculitis. Find the latest research on inflammation of the vascular wall here.
Genetic testing is an important and necessary aspect of the management of families with cardiac genetic conditions. Here is the lastest research.
Inotropic agents alter the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction. Inotropic agents are used in hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output, or with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. Discover the latest research on inotrpic agents and heart diseases here.
Intracranial aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder which results due to a localized bulging of the cerebral artery or vein. Here is the latest research.
Ischemia results from lack of blood flow to a particular region or organ and can have serious consequences, including myocardial infarction. Different therapeutic interventions including stents, percutaneous coronary intervention and angioplasty may be used for treatment. Discover the latest research on ischemia here.
Ischemia and reperfusion is a pathological condition characterized by an initial restriction of blood supply to an organ followed by the subsequent restoration of perfusion and concomitant reoxygenation. Restoration of blood flow and reoxygenation is frequently associated with an exacerbation of tissue injury and a profound inflammatory response (called ‘reperfusion injury’). Discover the latest research on ischemia and reperfusion here.
Ischemic vascular disease occurs when there is reduced blood flow and supply through a vessel. When plaque builds up in arteries it is known as atherosclerosis and can affect many different arteries throughout the body, including the heart, brain, legs, arms and kidneys. Discover the latest research on ischemic vascular disease here.
Kartagener syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasis. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and cilia in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts. Discover the latest research on Kartagener syndrome here.
Long noncoding rnas (lncrnas) are emerging as powerful regulators of cardiac development and disease. Here is the latest research.
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. It is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue. Discover the latest research on Marfan syndrome here.
This feed focuses on Membrane Transport proteins and their dysfunction which can lead to heart disease. Discover the latest research on Membrane Transport in Heart Failure.
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. It significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular and disease and type 2 diabetes. Increasing prevalence has been associated with the increasing rates of obesity worldwide. Here is the latest research on the metabolic syndrome.
The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. It is considered to be a precursor of cardiovascular disease. Discover the latest research on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease here.
Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Here is the latest research on metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Microaneurysms are small outpouchings of the capillaries and can occur in various different organs. They are the first clinical sign of diabetic non-proliferative eye disease. Here is the latest research.
Mitochondrial dysfunction has wide-ranging effects on cellular function and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
Establishing cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells has great potential as a cell source for therapeutic applications, such as regenerative medicine. Discover the latest research on Molecular Drivers of Cardiomyocyte Maturation here.
Myocardial rupture is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction that usually results in sudden death. Here is the latest research.
Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.
Myocardial infarctions occur when blood flow to a part of the heart decreases or stops. Here is the latest research on factors and mechanisms that modulate the risk of myocardial infarctions.
Myocarditis is an acute or chronic inflammatory disease of the myocardium which can be viral, postinfectious immune or primarily organ-specific autoimmune. Discover the latest research on myocarditis here.
The activation of neurohumoral compensatory mechanisms is a common physiological phenomenon in heart failure in order to make up for a failing heart, which will usually have a deteriorating effect on overall health condition. Discover the latest research on Neurohumoral Compensatory Mechanisms here.
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis is characterized by the presence of non-infected vegetation on the heart valves, namely aortic and mitral. A higher rate of these vegetation are see in cancer patients. Here is the latest research on non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis.
Noonan Syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by unusual facial features, heart defects and other phenotypes. Mutations in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway account for the majority of cases. Discover the latest research on Noonan Syndrome here.
Obesity is becoming a major health concern and epidemic worldwide. It is regarded as a systemic, low-grade inflammatory state and has been linked to several diseases, one of major importance is cardiovascular diseases. Here is the latest research on obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
Paediatric cardiomyopathy and heart failure are distinct but frequently associated conditions, which have a high mortality. Here is the latest research.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD), which comprises atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta, iliac, and lower-extremity arteries, is a common circulatory condition in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to the limbs. Discover the latest research on peripheral artery disease here
Platelets are a blood cell that can initiate clot formation in response to damage to blood vessels. Following platelet adhesion, platelets become activated before aggregating. Find the latest research on platelet activation here.
Platelets are a blood cell that can initiate clot formation in response to damage to blood vessels. Disruption of the vascular endothelium exposes ligands the induce platelet adhesion, followed by platelet activation and aggregation. Find the latest research on platelet adhersion here.
Platelets are a blood cell that can initiate clot formation in response to damage to blood vessels. Find the latest research on platelet signaling here.
Patients with prediabetes syndrome have abnormally high blood glucose levels, thereby increasing the risk of developing diabetes and vascular complications. Discover the latest research here.
Prenatal diagnosis has enabled the detection of chromosomal abnormalities as well as single gene disorders and led to substantive improvements in the detection of congenital anomalies. Here is the latest research.
A pseudoaneurysm or false aneurysm is the pooling of blood between the two outermost layers of the blood vessel, the tunica media and tunica adventitia. Find the latest research on pseudoaneurysms here.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension refers to the high blood pressure in the arteries that go from the heart ot the lungs. Here is the latest research.
Cor pulmonale, also known as pulmonary heart disease, refers to the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart caused as a result of high blood pressure in the lungs or increased vascular resistance. Here is the latest research.
Pulmonary hypertension results in increased pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance, commonly from cardiac and respiratory diseases. As a result of the structural and functional changes, right heart failure can occur, leading to premature death. Here is the latest research on pulmonary hypertension.
Pulmonary vein stenosis is the stenosis of one or more of the pulmonary veins that returns blood from the lung to the left atrium. Discover the latest research on this rare cardiovascular disorder here.
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is a form of pulmonary hypertension characterized by pulmonary venule remodeling. Here is the latest research on this disease.
Angiogenesis is considered an important process in the development of malignancies that can be regulated through long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Discover the latest research on Regulation of Angiogenesis by lncRNAs here.
Rheumatic heart disease, the sequel of acute rheumatic fever, continues to be a common health problem in the developing world, causing morbidity and mortality among both children and adults. Discover the latest research on rheumatic heart disease here.
Right axis deviation is detected from the direction of electrical depolarisation on an electrocardiogram. This is an indication of some underlying pathological mechanism such as right bundle branch block, rhythm abnormality and lateral myocardial infarction. Here is the latest research on right axis deviation.
An aneurysm occurs when there is weakening of a blood vessel wall, which causes the formation of a bulge. Aneurysms can rupture, particularly as they become larger, which puts the patient at risk for hemorrhage. Find the latest research on ruptured aneurysms here.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are novel anti-diabetic drugs that lowers blood glucose. This feed focuses on the role of SGLT2i in diabetes and reducing heart failure.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Here is the latest research.
Statins or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are used clinically to lower cholesterol levels and have been associated with decreased risk of heart disease. Discover the latest research on Statin Medications & Heart Disease here.
Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) is an infection of the heart involving damaged valves or endothelium. Discover the latest research on SBE here.
Supraventricular arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms, typically faster than normal rhythms, that originate in the upper part of the heart. Find the latest research on supraventricular arrhythmias here.
Autophagy is an important pathway for breaking down proteins and damaged organelles and may play an important role in reducing cardiovascular diseases. Discover the latest research on Targeting Autophagy in Cardiovascular Disease here.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect with an unknown cause which is typically treated by open heart surgery in the first year of life. Symptoms include bluish skin colour, heart murmur, and finger clubbing. Here is the latest research.
Thrombosis, the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel that obstructs the flow of blood through the circulatory system, is thought to occur when natural hemostatic mechanisms, which help restrict the clot to the site of injury, are genetically impaired or are overwhelmed by the severity of the initial injury. Discover the latest research on hemostasis and thrombosis here.
Transposition of Great Vessels is a congenital heart defect in which the positions of the pulmonary artery and aorta are switched. Surgery is used to correct this defect in newborns. Discover the latest research on Transposition of Great Vessels here.
Turner syndrome is a syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated gonads (streak gonads), sexual infantilism, hypogonadism, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated gonadotropins, decreased estradiol level in blood, and congenital heart defects. Discover the latest research on Turner syndrome here.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B (VEGF-B) is growth factor related to VEGFA, but is not typically involved in blood vessel growth. Discover the latest research on VEGF-B & Angiogenesis here.
Valvular heart disease causes significant burden within the realm of cardiovascular diseases and is increasing in prevalence, especially that of aortic valve insufficiency. Rheumatic fever causing valvular diseases has decreased incidence in industrialized countries. Discover the latest research on valvular disease here.
Vascular imaging makes it possible to quantify the number and spacing of blood vessels, measure blood flow and vascular permeability, and analyze cellular and molecular abnormalities in blood vessel walls. Discover the latest research on vascular imaging here.
Ventricular aneurysms are thin outpouchings that can occur in the left or right ventricle. The aneurysm may require surgical or pharmacological treatment. Discover the latest research on ventricular aneurysms here.
Ventricular arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that originate in the lower part of the heart. Find the latest research on ventricular arrhythmias here.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through inhibition of protein translation or by degradation of specific transcripts. miRNAs can regulate cardiovascular health, and be potential biomarkers or targets in cardiovascular disease. Discover the latest research on miRNAs in Cardiovascular Biology here.