Cell Adhesion & Migration
An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. They can appear as bands encircling the cell (zonula adherens) or as spots of attachment to the extracellular matrix (adhesion plaques). Adherens junctions uniquely disassemble in uterine epithelial cells to allow the blastocyst to penetrate between epithelial cells. Discover the latest research on adherens junctions here.
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.
Basement membranes are thin, specialized extracellular matrices surrounding most tissues in all metazoans. Here is the latest research on basement membranes.
Alterations in cell adhesion can disrupt important cellular processes and lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer and arthritis. It is also essential for infectious organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, to cause diseases. Understanding the biophysics of cell adhesion can help understand these diseases. Discover the latest research on the biophysics of adhesion here.
Cadherins (named for "calcium-dependent adhesion") are a type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that is important in the formation of adherens junctions to bind cells with each other. Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells: alpha-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. β-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Discover the latest research on cadherins and catenins here.
Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for cancer detection and therapy that utilizes nanoparticles, such as liposomes. Nanoparticles can potentially target cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Discover the latest research on Cancer Cell Invasion: Nanomedicine here.
Cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelium and circulating leukocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli are implicated in atherosclerosis. Here is the latest research.
Cell adhesion molecules found on cell surface help cells bind with other cells or the extracellular matrix to maintain structure and function. Here is the latest research on their role in the brain.
Migration of cancer cells into surrounding tissue and the vasculature is an initial step in tumor metastasis. Discover the latest research on cell migration in cancer and metastasis here.
Chondrogenesis is the earliest phase of skeletal development, involving mesenchymal cell recruitment and migration, condensation of progenitors, and chondrocyte differentiation, and maturation and resulting in the formation of cartilage and bone during endochondral ossification. Here is the latest research.
Cell motility depend directly on the regulated dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Here is the latest research focusing on cytoskeleton dynamics in various different modes of motility including flagellar, gliding, and twitching motility.
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition is a process where epithelial cells lose their polarity and gain mesenchymal properties, such as increase in cell migration. Discover the latest research on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition here.
Multiprotein adhesion structures allow the interaction of a cell with the extracellular matrix comprised of extracellular molecules that ensure tissue integrity and play a role in cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Here is the latest research.
Focal Adhesions are structures composed of integrins and other scaffolding proteins that link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Discover the latest research on Focal Adhesions: Structure and Dynamics here.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a glycolipid anchor for several cell-surface proteins that play a role in various biological processes, including signal transduction, prion disease pathogenesis, and immune response. Here is the latest research.
Gap junctions are a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types.They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells. Discover the latest research on gap junctions here.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Upon ligand binding, integrins activate signal transduction pathways that mediate cellular signals such as regulation of the cell cycle, organization of the intracellular cytoskeleton, and movement of new receptors to the cell membrane. Discover the latest research on integrin signalling here.
Leukocyte migration is essential for reactions to inflammatory stimuli at various locations in the body. However, leukocyte movement is also crucial during non-inflammatory processes such as haematopoietic development and routine passage through secondary lymphoid organs, which is also required for effective antigen presentation. Discover the latest research on leukocyte migration here,
Mechanotransduction refers to the processes through which cells sense and respond to mechanical stimuli by converting them to biochemical signals that elicit specific cellular responses. Discover the latest research on mechanotransduction here.
Chemotaxis is the directional migration of cells in response to extracellular chemoattractent gradients. This process is crucial for the development of multicellular organisms and immune responses, in cancer metastasis and inflammatory disease, and for bacterial survival. Understanding the mechanisms regulating chemotaxis will be important for understanding mechanisms underlying development and disease.
Selectins are a class of lectin molecule expressed on endothelial cells that permit leukocyte rolling and eventual extravasation. Targeting selectins may prove useful in modifying inflammation and for drug delivery to the endothelium.
Synaptic or neuronal junctions are the site of transmission of electrical nerve impulses between neurons or between neurons and effector cells. Discover the latest research on synaptic junctions here.
Tight junctions are multiprotein junctional complexes whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway. Discover the latest research on tight junctions here,
Wound healing is a complex biologic process that involves the integration of inflammation, mitosis, angiogenesis, synthesis, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Here is the latest research.
Wound healing involves many cells including, platelets, neutrophils, macrophages and fibroblasts. These molecules release cytokines such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha and growth factors that largely manage the inflammatory phase of healing and promote the recruitment of additional cells. Here is the latest research on wound healing cells and signals.