Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterized by severe weight loss and secondary problems associated with malnutrition. Here is the latest research on AN.
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research.
Neurons in the basal forebrain play specific roles in regulating feeding. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the basal forebrain and food avoidance.
Body dysmorphic disorder is an intense preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones physical appearance. It can be a severely impairing disorder and is common among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Discover the latest research on body dysmorphic disorder here.
Child and adolescent psychiatry encompasses the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in children or adolescents and their families. Find the latest research on child and adolescent psychiatry here.
Child eating includes but is not limited to diet patterns, intakes of specific foods or beverages, and eating behaviours. Discover the latest research on childhood eating behaviors here.
Eating and feeding disorders are characterized by perturbed eating or eating-related behavior. In children, this can lead to developmental delays. Find the latest research on childhood eating and feeding disorders here.
There is ongoing debate regarding the handling of comorbidity in psychiatric disorders, and determining whether the issue lies with the categorizations of diagnostic conventions or if there is an underlying pathology that links multiple diseases. Understanding how to give the proper diagnosis/diagnoses would allow for optimal management of the patient. Find the latest research on comorbidity in psychiatry here.
Midbrain dopamine neurons have long been implicated in mediating reward behavior and the motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to dopamine and feeding.
Eating disorders-including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder-are challenging health issues. Here is the latest research on eating disorders.
It is essential to address body dissatisfaction within eating disorders treatment to improve outcomes and reduce risk of relapse. Here is the latest research on eating disorders treatment.
Feeding behavior is a fundamental aspect of energy homeostasis, the process by which body's fuel is stored in the form of adipose tissue and is held constant over long intervals. Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. Discover the latest research on energy homeostasis in eating here.
Psychiatric disorders are known to be multifaceted in their pathophysiology. Because epigenetic changes can be sensitive to the environment, inherited, and reversible, the study of epigenetics in psychiatric disease is a logical way to understand the natural history of the disease as well as to develop therapeutics. Find the latest research on epigenetics and psychiatry here.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver‐derived hormone with pleiotropic metabolic effects. FGF21 selectively inhibits consumption of sugars, but not fat, protein or complex carbohydrates. Discover the latest research on FGF21 in food choice and metabolism here.
Forensic psychiatry includes the relationship between psychiatric abnormalities and legal violations and crimes. Discover the latest research on forensic psychiatry here.
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress response cytokine that directly acts on the feeding centres in the brain and plays a role in regulation of energy homeostasis. Here is the latest research on mechanisms underlying GDF15 function in appetite and homeostasis.
GFRAL is a receptor for growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). These proteins play a role in regulating inflammatory pathways, as well as cell repair, apoptosis, and cell growth. Here is the latest research on GFRAL/GDF15-mediated signal transduction.
Anorexia Nervosa is a psychiatric disease that can be severely debilitating and life-threatening. Genetic associations have discovered abnormalities on chromosome 12. Other genetic risk factors are being investigated to discern if there are other genetic and familial links. Here is the latest research pertaining to this disease.
The variation in weight within a shared environment is largely attributable to genetic factors. Understanding the mechanisms underlying leanness/resistance to obesity may highlight novel anti-obesity targets for future drug development. Discover the latest research on the genetics of leanness here.
GFRAL is a receptor for growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). These proteins play a role in regulating inflammatory pathways, as well as cell repair, apoptosis, cell growth, and body-weight regulation. Here is the latest research on the role of GFRAL-expressing neurons in reducing food intake.
Hedonic feeding is eating to obtain pleasure in the absence of an energy deficit. Recent evidence suggests that the hunger hormone ghrelin is involved in hedonic feeding through the dopaminergic reward pathway. Discover the latest research on hedonic feeding here.
Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays many roles in regulating food intake. Discover the latest research on hippocampus and feeding here.
The hypothalamus has received significant attention in this regard given its ability to influence feeding behavior, yet organisms rely on a much broader diversity and distribution of neuronal networks to regulate both energy intake and expenditure. Here is the latest research on the hypothalamus and feeding.
Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Here is the latest research on the hypothalamus and food intake.
Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state. Discover the latest research on inflammation and obesity here.
We discuss modulators of leptin and the leptin receptor as they relate to normal cognitive functioning and may mediate some of the actions of leptin in the brain. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to leptin in the brain.
Molecular genetic research of eating disorders is in its infancy. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, estrogen receptor ß gene) and several large-scale linkage and association studies are currently underway. Discover the latest research on monogenetic eating disorders here.
Cytokines released during inflammation and malignancy act on the central nervous system to alter the release and function of a number of neurotransmitters, thereby altering both appetite and metabolic rate, leading to the rise of cachexia. Discover the latest research on neural circuitry and cachexia here
Neurons within the central nervous system receive signals that regulate feeding and metabolism. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to neural circuits in regulating feeding.
Studies have reported important roles for subpopulations of gabaergic cells in the regulation of both feeding and arousal. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to neural circuits in stress and feeding.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver‐derived hormone that selectively inhibits consumption of sugars and the primary product of their fermentation, ethanol, but not intake of fat, protein or complex carbohydrates. SIRT1 is a protein of the sirtuin family linked with deacetylation of proteins and contributes to reaction to stressor and longevity. Here is the latest research on neural control of FGF21 and SIRT1.
Overconsumption is associated with activity of a complex network of neuroregulators affecting areas such as drug addiction and binge eating. Discover the latest research on neural control of overconsumption here.
Hunger is regulated by specialized neural circuits that transform brain signals into behaviors. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the neurobiology of hunger.
Neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neural structures and activities involved in eating disorders. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the neuroimaging of eating disorders.
Neuropsychiatry is an emerging field at the intersection of neurology and psychiatry, driven by the unprecedented advances in neuroscience. Here are the latest discoveries in neuropsychiatry.
Serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters involved in feeding and eating disorders. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to neurotransmitters in feeding.
Pediatric obesity is increasing worldwide and is a serious public health concern. It affects a greater proportion of people from low socioeconomic backgrounds. It is associated with poorer health outcomes in adulthood, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here is the latest research on pediatric obesity.
Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) including autistic disorder, Asperger’s, and PDD not otherwise specified, are neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood onset. Discover the latest research on pervasive developmental disorders here.
is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior. It is distinguished from neuropsychopharmacology, which emphasizes the correlation between drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system and changes in consciousness and behavior. Discover the latest research on psychopharmacology here
Psychotherapy is used to change behaviour and treat various psychological diseases. Here is the latest research.
Elevated levels of perceived stress may precede the onset of binge-eating disorder (BED). A history of significant weight changes or a fascination and obsession with dieting along with genetics and family history are also potential risk factors. Discover the latest research on risk factors for BED here.
Treatment options for anorexia nervosa are limited. Diet and psychotherapy including family based therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy are two commonly used treatments while pharmacotherapies have limited benefits. Discover the latest research on treatment for anorexia nervosa here.
The vagus nerve has afferent and efferent pathways that affect satiation, regulate appetite, and control feeding behavior. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the vagal control of feeding.