HIV infection increases the risk of non-communicable diseases common in the aged, including cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive decline, non-aids malignancies, osteoporosis, and frailty. Discover the latest research in AIDS malignancies.
Acinetobacter infections have become common in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit setting and are difficult to treat due to their propensity to develop antimicrobial drug resistance. Discover the latest research on Acinetobacter Infections here.
Acute viral rhinopharyngitis, also known as "common cold", is an acute, self-limiting viral infection of the upper respiratory tract involving the nose, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Discover the latest research on acute viral rhinopharyngitis here.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei and almost invariably progresses to death unless treated. Discover the latest research on African trypanosomiasis here.
Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen, lethal factor, and oedema factor, is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in humans and animals. Here is the latest research on Anthrax.
Three different types of anthrax vaccines are available; a live-attenuated, an alum-precipitated cell-free filtrate and a protein recombinant vaccine. The effectiveness between the three is uncertain, but the live-attenuated have shown to reduce the risk of anthrax with low adverse events. Here is the latest research on anthrax vaccines.
Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis occurs in chronic or acute forms which are clinically very distinct. Most cases of acute aspergillosis occur in patients with severely compromised immune systems. Chronic colonization or infection can cause complications in people with underlying respiratory illnesses. Discover the latest research on aspergillosis here.
Adjuvants systems that are added to vaccines against avian influenza have be explored to enhance the innate immune system response against the virus. Here is the latest research on avian influenza and the innate immune adjuvant.
BK virus infection is a significant complication of modern immunosuppression used in kidney transplantation. Discover the latest research on BK virus infection here.
Bacillus Cereus is a gram-positive bacteria that is the cause of some foodborne illnesses and leads to diarrhea and vomiting. Discover the latest research on Bacillus Cereus Infection here.
Bacterial meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Here is the latest research.
Bacterial pneumonia is a prevalent and costly infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients of all ages. Here is the latest research.
Campylobacteriosis is caused by the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Discover the latest research on Campylobacteriosis here.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. Discover the latest research on Candida albicans here.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread mostly by insects known as Triatominae, or "kissing bugs". The symptoms change over the course of the infection. In the early stage, symptoms are typically either not present or mild, and may include fever, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, or local swelling at the site of the bite. After 8–12 weeks, individuals enter the chronic phase of disease and in 60–70% it never produces further symptoms.The other 30–40% of people develop further symptoms 10–30 years after the initial infection, including enlargement of the ventricles of the heart in 20–30%, leading to heart failure. An enlarged esophagus or an enlarged colon may also occur in 10% of people. Discover the latest research on Chagas disease here.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It can be asymptomatic or manifest into other serious complications such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Discover the latest research on Chlamydia here.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1 and/or O139. When ingested, its clinical sequelae include the acute onset of severe secretory ‘rice water’ diarrhoea. Within three to four hours of symptom onset, a previously healthy individual may become severely dehydrated and if not treated may die within twenty four hours. This makes cholera one of the most rapidly fatal infectious illnesses known. Discover the latest research on cholera here.
Cryptosporidiosis is a self-limited diarrheal disease that occurs in the community setting but can be chronic and potentially serious in immunocompromised patients. Here is the latest research.
Cytomegalovirus is a common infection among adults with little to no symptoms. Cytomegalovirus infection among immunocompromised hosts or organ transplant recipients can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Discover the latest research here.
Dengue Virus, a mosquito transmitted pathogen, is the causative agent of dengue fever, the most important arboviral disease of humans, which affects an estimated 50-100 million people annually. Discover the latest research here.
Diphtheria is a bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Transmission is usually airborne, and the disease usually presents with respiratory symptoms including sore throat and cough, but can involve complications such as myocarditis or neuritis. Find the latest research on diphtheria here.
HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic with Sub-Saharan Africa being the most affected region. In 2017, almost 37 million people were infected with HIV and almost 1 million deaths occurred due to AIDS. Find the latest research on HIV/AIDS here.
The Epstein-Barr virus or human herpesvirus 4 is a common virus in humans. It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis, but is also associated with many malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Find the latest research on Epstein-Barr virus infection here.
Fungal meningitis is a serious disease caused by a fungal infection of the central nervous system mostly in individuals with immune system deficiencies. Here is the latest research.
HIV co-infection worsens the histological course of other viral infections, such as HCV by increasing and accelerating the risk of cirrhosis or leading to rare but lethal fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Discover the latest research on HIV co-infection.
The development to make HIV vaccines for both the prevention and treatment of HIV infection is ongoing. Some individuals with HIV infection produce antibodies which suppress the virus and allow the patients to remain asymptomatic, suggesting that a vaccine may be achievable. Find the latest research on HIV vaccines here.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major pathogenic factor for gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma, as well as for other types of gastric and extragastric disease. Discover the latest research on H. pylori infection here.
Hepatitis B virus is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide and is associated with acute, fulminant, and chronic hepatitis, as well as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here is the latest research.
Herpes simplex virus infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and are classified as either type 1 (cold sores) or type 2 (genital herpes). Discover the latest research on Herpes Simplex Virus here.
Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm. Discover the latest research on hookworm infection here.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection that is associated with the development of cervical and head and neck cancers. Discover the latest research on Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection here.
The immune reactions to nonenveloped viruses are predominantly humoral responses against extracellular viruses, a process that results in lysis and death of the infected cell, and because viral antigens are not present on the cell membrane. In contrast, cell-mediated immunity, together with humoral immune response, plays a major role in the defense against enveloped viral infections. Discover the latest research on immunology and virus here.
Pyroptosis is a form of necrotic and inflammatory programmed cell death induced by inflammatory caspases, one of which is activated by Inflammasome, a multiprotein oligomer responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses. Discover the latest research on inflammasome and pyroptosis here.
Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and feeling tired. Discover the latest research on influenza here.
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by Leishmania species and transmitted though the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. It is considered to be a neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis is often categorized as cutaneous (presenting with skin sores, mucocutaneous (presenting with skin and mucosal lesions), and visceral (affecting multiple organs). Find the latest research on leishmaniasis here.
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.Signs and symptoms can range from none to mild such as headaches, muscle pains, and fevers to severe with bleeding from the lungs or meningitis. If the infection causes the person to turn yellow, have kidney failure and bleeding, it is then known as Weil's disease.If it also causes bleeding into the lungs then it is known as severe pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome. Discover the latest research on leptospirosis here.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. Discover the latest research on malaria here,
Research for development of a malaria vaccine is currently underway to find an effective modality to control and eliminate the transmission of malaria. To date, no vaccine has been found to be efficacious in fighting against malaria. Here is the latest research on malaria vaccines.
Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis and often manifests as meningitis or septicemia. The serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W135 are responsible for most cases. Find the latest research on meningococcal disease here.
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells isolated from bone marrow with the capacity to differentiate into a variety of cell types and are being investigated for a number of potential therapeutic applications. Discover the latest research on mesenchymal stem cells here.
Human metapneumovirus infection is a leading cause of respiratory tract infection in the first years of life, with a spectrum of disease similar to that of respiratory syncytial virus. Here is the latest research.
Natural Killer (NK) cells are critical for the containment of viral replication, particularly during early infection. Some viruses such as HIV and influenza have developed mechanisms to evade NK detection and infect the host. Here is the latest research on NK cells and viral immunity.
Several methods have been utilized to isolate and characterize individual antibodies from the human repertoire and each of these methods has been applied to the generation of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Discover the latest research on neutralizing HIV antibodies.
Pertussis, known as whooping cough, is caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis vaccines are effective for disease prevention. Discover the latest research on Pertussis here.
Pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also called the pneumococcus.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a respiratory illness in both children and adults. Discover the latest research on RSV here.
Salmonella infections are a serious public health problem in developing countries and represent a constant concern for the food industry. Discover the latest research on Salmonella Infections here.
Scarlet fever is an infection of the group A streptococcus bacterial strains that presents itself with a characteristic rash in a small subset of patients with strep throat. Discover the latest research on Scarlet Fever here.
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that affects 200 million people and is directly responsible for an annual death of 20,000 patients. Here is the latest research.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Initial symptoms are flu-like and may include fever, muscle pain, lethargy symptoms, cough, sore throat, and other nonspecific symptoms. SARS may eventually lead to shortness of breath and pneumonia; either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. DIscover the latest research on SARS here.
Staphylococcal infections caused by Staphylococcus bacteria can cause skin infections, food poisoning, septicaemia, toxic shock syndrome, etc. Here is the latest research.
Streptococcal infections are caused by streptococci, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria which cause diverse human diseases. Discover the latest research on streptococcal infection here.
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the nematode called Strongyloides stercoralis. It can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Discover the latest research on strongyloidiasis here.
Syphilis is an important public health issue and continues to occur at high rates among sexually active individuals. Here is the latest research.
Tetanus is a condition caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin impairs the function of motor neurons, leading to muscle spasms and tightness. Discover the latest research on Tetanus here.
Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, remains the leading infectious cause of blindness. Here is the latest research.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Discover the latest research on tuberculosis here.
Typhoid fever, a systemic infection caused by salmonella enterica serotype typhi, remains an important worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Discover the latest research on typhoid fever here.
Viral respiratory tract infections can have profound effects on important aspects of asthma. Discover the latest research on viral infections and asthma here.
The challenges in developing a safe and effective Zika virus vaccine include limiting side effects such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Discover the latest research on Zika vaccines here.