The Alternative Complement Pathway is part of the innate immune system, and activation generates membrane attack complexes that kill pathogenic cells. Discover the latest research on the Alternative Complement Pathway.
Adjuvants systems that are added to vaccines against avian influenza have be explored to enhance the innate immune system response against the virus. Here is the latest research on avian influenza and the innate immune adjuvant.
Basophils are myeloid cells with a high affinity IgE receptor and is involved in inflammatory responses during allergy. Discover the latest research on Basophils here.
The Classical Complement Pathway is activated by antigen-antibody complexes. Activation of this pathway leads to the generation of the membrane attack complex, which kills pathogenic cells. Discover the latest research on the Classical Complement Pathway here.
The Mannose-Binding Lectin Complement Pathway is activated when mannose-binding lectin binds to mannose found on the surface of pathogens. Subsequent complement activation is similar to the classical complement pathway, but without the need for antigen-antibody complexes. Discover the latest research here.
Inflammation Mediators include cytokines, prostaglandins and other molecules that ochestrate the inflammatory process in response to injury, allergy or pathogens. Discover the latest research on Inflammation Mediators here.
Innate immune responses in the CNS are carried out by microglia and astrocytes. Here is the latest research on mechanisms underlying innate immunity in the CNS and its impact on neurophysiology.
Many components of the mammalian innate immune system have homologs in lower organisms, such as invertebrates. Discover the latest research on Innate Immunity in Lower Organisms here.
The innate immune system is a first line of defense against infection. Pathological states can occur if there is over activation of the innate immune system, particularly in the. The excessive activation of these cells can lead to inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Here is the latest research on innate immunity and neurodegeneration.
Intracellular killing involves the death of microbes within the phagocyte. Here is the latest research on intracellular killing.
Natural killer cells express inhibitory receptors specific for mhc class i proteins and stimulatory receptors with diverse specificities. Here is the latest research on natural killer cells.
Cytolytic t lymphocytes exert two main specific molecular killing mechanisms against target cells, namely (i) they can synthesize and release soluble cytolytic factors, and (ii) they can express effector molecules that act as ligands of receptors expressed by target cells on the cell surface. Here is the latest research on killing mechanisms.
Mast cells are key components involved in allergic reactions. They release chemical mediators that are responsible for the clinical symptoms of an allergic reaction. These chemical mediators include histamine, cytokines, leukotrienes and many others. Discover the latest research on mast cells in allergy here.
The maternal-fetal interface encompasses the decidua from the mother and the placenta from the developing fetus. Throughout pregnancy important cells and receptors are located on the interface. Cells including fetal trophoblasts and toll-like receptors are of great importance. Here is the latest research on the maternal-fetal interface.
Myeloid cells in the CNS are innate immune cells that are essential for brain development and maintenance. Here is the latest research on myeloid cells, including microglia, in neuroinflammation.
MDSC (myeloid-derived suppressor cells) are a heterogenous group of immune cells from the myeloid lineage. MDSCs strongly expand in pathological situations such as chronic infections and cancer, as a result of an altered haematopoiesis. MDSCs are discriminated from other myeloid cell types in which they possess strong immunosuppressive activities rather than immunostimulatory properties.
NK cells identify and attack target cells based on integration of signals from activation and inhibitory receptors, whose ligands exhibit complex expression and/or binding patterns. Here is the latest research.
Natural Killer (NK) cells are critical for the containment of viral replication, particularly during early infection. Some viruses such as HIV and influenza have developed mechanisms to evade NK detection and infect the host. Here is the latest research on NK cells and viral immunity.
Neutrophils are an essential component of the innate immune response and a major contributor to inflammation. Here is the latest research on neutrophils.
Opsonization of apoptotic cells facilitates recognition by phagocytes for the rapid clearance of potentially inflammatory cellular material. Here is the latest research.
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.