Leukocyte Biology


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Antibody-mediated agglutination is the clumping of cells in the presence of antibody, which binds multiple cells together. This enhances the clearance of pathogens. Find the latest research on antibody-mediated agglutination here.
Antibodies: Agglutination

Antibody-mediated agglutination is the clumping of cells in the presence of antibody, which binds multiple cells together. This enhances the clearance of pathogens. Find the latest research on antibody-mediated agglutination here.

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The complement system can be activated by antigen-associated antibody. In the classical pathway of complement activation, C1q, C4b, and C3b are all able to bind to the Fc portion of IgG or IgM. Find the latest research on antibodies and complement activation here.
Antibodies: Complement Activation

The complement system can be activated by antigen-associated antibody. In the classical pathway of complement activation, C1q, C4b, and C3b are all able to bind to the Fc portion of IgG or IgM. Find the latest research on antibodies and complement activation here.

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Development of antibodies require integration of knowledge with respect to target antigen properties, antibody design criteria such as affinity, isotype selection, Fc domain engineering, and antibody cross-reactivity across species from the early stages of antibody development. Here is the latest research.

Antibody Development

Development of antibodies require integration of knowledge with respect to target antigen properties, antibody design criteria such as affinity, isotype selection, Fc domain engineering, and antibody cross-reactivity across species from the early stages of antibody development. Here is the latest research.


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Antibodies produced by B cells are highly specific for antigen as a result of random gene recombination and somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. As the main effector of the humoral immune system, antibodies can neutralize foreign cells. Find the latest research on antibody specificity here.
Antibody Specificity

Antibodies produced by B cells are highly specific for antigen as a result of random gene recombination and somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. As the main effector of the humoral immune system, antibodies can neutralize foreign cells. Find the latest research on antibody specificity here.

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Antibodies have various functions including neutralization of pathogens, tumor targeting, as well as its utility in biomedical research. Here is the latest research on antibody synthesis.
Antibody synthesis
Fast Growing

Antibodies have various functions including neutralization of pathogens, tumor targeting, as well as its utility in biomedical research. Here is the latest research on antibody synthesis.

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Antibody-dependent cellular toxicity refers to the lysis of a target cell by a non-sensitized effector cell of the immune system as a result of antibodies binding to the target cell membrane and engaging the Fc receptors on the immune effector cells. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent cellular toxicity here.
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity
Fast Growing

Antibody-dependent cellular toxicity refers to the lysis of a target cell by a non-sensitized effector cell of the immune system as a result of antibodies binding to the target cell membrane and engaging the Fc receptors on the immune effector cells. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent cellular toxicity here.

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Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is the entry of virus into host cells mediated by antiviral antibodies interacting with Fc or complement receptors. This has been most extensively observed with the dengue virus. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent enhancement here.
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement
Fast Growing

Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is the entry of virus into host cells mediated by antiviral antibodies interacting with Fc or complement receptors. This has been most extensively observed with the dengue virus. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent enhancement here.

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Antigenic modulation occurs when an antibody cross-links antigens on a cell surface, causing the antigens to become internalized. This can lead to therapeutic failure of monoclonal antibodies as the expression of the antigen becomes decreased on target cells. Find the latest research on antigenic modulation here.
Antigenic Modulation
Fast Growing

Antigenic modulation occurs when an antibody cross-links antigens on a cell surface, causing the antigens to become internalized. This can lead to therapeutic failure of monoclonal antibodies as the expression of the antigen becomes decreased on target cells. Find the latest research on antigenic modulation here.

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B cell activation is initiated by the ligation of the B cell receptor with antigen and ultimately results in the production of protective antibodies against potentially pathogenic invaders. Here is the latest research.
B cell Activation

B cell activation is initiated by the ligation of the B cell receptor with antigen and ultimately results in the production of protective antibodies against potentially pathogenic invaders. Here is the latest research.

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Depending on the signal received through the B cell receptor and other receptors, B cells differentiate into follicular or marginal zone B cells. Here is the latest research pertaining to this differentiation process.
B cell Differentiation

Depending on the signal received through the B cell receptor and other receptors, B cells differentiate into follicular or marginal zone B cells. Here is the latest research pertaining to this differentiation process.

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B cell tolerance is maintained through mechanisms that can reversibly or irreversibly silence autoreactive B lymphocytes. Here is the latest research.
B cell Tolerance

B cell tolerance is maintained through mechanisms that can reversibly or irreversibly silence autoreactive B lymphocytes. Here is the latest research.

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Toll-like receptors  (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and trigger innate immunity leading to initiation of adaptive immunity. This feed focuses on the role of TLRs and B cells in antigen recognition. 

B cells: Antigen Recognition

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and trigger innate immunity leading to initiation of adaptive immunity. This feed focuses on the role of TLRs and B cells in antigen recognition. 


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B lymphocytes are white blood cells that play a role in the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Here is the latest research on gene expression in B cells.
B cells: Gene Expression

B lymphocytes are white blood cells that play a role in the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Here is the latest research on gene expression in B cells.

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Blood group incompatibility between donor and recipient has been associated with poor transplant outcomes. Discover the latest research on blood group icompatibility here.
Blood Group Incompatibility

Blood group incompatibility between donor and recipient has been associated with poor transplant outcomes. Discover the latest research on blood group icompatibility here.

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Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.
CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

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Cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelium and circulating leukocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli are implicated in atherosclerosis. Here is the latest research.
Cell Adhesion Molecules in AS

Cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelium and circulating leukocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli are implicated in atherosclerosis. Here is the latest research.

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Cell migration is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. Here is the latest research.
Cell Migration
Influential

Cell migration is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. Here is the latest research.

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Immunometabolism involves not only the way metabolites are digested by the immune system, but the way in which they can alter the pathway of the immune system. These responses occur in day-to-day healthy cell functioning, but can result in diseases, such as autoimmune disorders. Discover the latest research on cellular immunometabolism here.
Cellular Immunometabolism
Fast Growing

Immunometabolism involves not only the way metabolites are digested by the immune system, but the way in which they can alter the pathway of the immune system. These responses occur in day-to-day healthy cell functioning, but can result in diseases, such as autoimmune disorders. Discover the latest research on cellular immunometabolism here.

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Cryoglobulinemia is a disease characterized by large immunoglobulin aggregates that precipitate at low body temperatures, termed cryoglobulins. Discover the latest research on cryoglobulinemia here.
Cryoglobulinemia
Going Viral

Cryoglobulinemia is a disease characterized by large immunoglobulin aggregates that precipitate at low body temperatures, termed cryoglobulins. Discover the latest research on cryoglobulinemia here.

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Cytokines are proteins that are released by a subset of immune cells and play a role in intercellular communication, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Discover the latest research on the influence of cytokine signaling on transcription here.
Cytokine Signaling & Transcription
Fast Growing

Cytokines are proteins that are released by a subset of immune cells and play a role in intercellular communication, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Discover the latest research on the influence of cytokine signaling on transcription here.

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Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate resting T cells in the primary immune response. Here is the latest research.

Dendritic Cell Signaling
Fast Growing

Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate resting T cells in the primary immune response. Here is the latest research.


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Fetal erythroblastosis or hemolytic disease of the newborn is a type of anemia in which fetal red blood cells are destroyed as a result of maternal immune reaction caused by blood group incompatibility. Here is the latest research.
Fetal Erythroblastosis

Fetal erythroblastosis or hemolytic disease of the newborn is a type of anemia in which fetal red blood cells are destroyed as a result of maternal immune reaction caused by blood group incompatibility. Here is the latest research.

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Geminal centres are located within secondary lymphoid organs including the spleen where B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody class-switching occurs. Here is the latest research.
Germinal Centers

Geminal centres are located within secondary lymphoid organs including the spleen where B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody class-switching occurs. Here is the latest research.

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Heavy chain diseases (HCD) are immunoproliferative disorders characterized by the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin molecules composed of deleted heavy chains devoid of light chains. Here is the latest research.
Heavy Chain Disease

Heavy chain diseases (HCD) are immunoproliferative disorders characterized by the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin molecules composed of deleted heavy chains devoid of light chains. Here is the latest research.

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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the cells that give rise to blood cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineage during hematopoiesis. HSC transplantation is an established therapeutic option for both malignant and nonmalignant indications. Here is the latest research.
Hematopoetic Stem Cells
Fast Growing

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the cells that give rise to blood cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineage during hematopoiesis. HSC transplantation is an established therapeutic option for both malignant and nonmalignant indications. Here is the latest research.

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Establishing the normal range of phenotypic variation within and between individuals requires consideration of contributions from genetics and the environment. Find the latest research on variations in the human immune system here.
Human Immune Variation: Genetics, Gender & Time

Establishing the normal range of phenotypic variation within and between individuals requires consideration of contributions from genetics and the environment. Find the latest research on variations in the human immune system here.

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Generating an atlas of immune cells in Asian populations will facilitate the study of the immune system between different ethnic groups and permit the use of common controls to minimize technical artifacts. Find research on five major Asian population groups (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indian, and Malay) here.
Immune Cell Atlas In Ethnically Diverse Asians
Fast Growing

Generating an atlas of immune cells in Asian populations will facilitate the study of the immune system between different ethnic groups and permit the use of common controls to minimize technical artifacts. Find research on five major Asian population groups (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indian, and Malay) here.

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Generating an atlas of African immune cell types will facilitate the study of the immune system between different ethnic groups and permit the use of common controls to minimize technical artifacts. Find research on immune cells of ethnically diverse African populations here.
Immune Cell Atlas in Ethnically Diverse Africans

Generating an atlas of African immune cell types will facilitate the study of the immune system between different ethnic groups and permit the use of common controls to minimize technical artifacts. Find research on immune cells of ethnically diverse African populations here.

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This feed focuses on the role of mutations in immune genes leading to Type 1 Diabetes, an autoimmune disease.
Immunogenetics of Type 1 Diabetes

This feed focuses on the role of mutations in immune genes leading to Type 1 Diabetes, an autoimmune disease.

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Immunoglobulin class switching from igm to igg and iga is central to immunity against viruses and requires the activation of b cells by t cells via cd154 and cytokines. Discover the latest research on immunoglobulin class switching here.
Immunoglobulin Class Switching
Going Viral

Immunoglobulin class switching from igm to igg and iga is central to immunity against viruses and requires the activation of b cells by t cells via cd154 and cytokines. Discover the latest research on immunoglobulin class switching here.

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DNA editing by the cytidine deaminase aid mediates immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, providing the antibody response with the flexibility and diversity to defend against an almost limitless array of varied and rapidly adapting pathogenic challenges. Discover the latest research on immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation here.
Immunoglobulin Somatic Hypermutation

DNA editing by the cytidine deaminase aid mediates immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, providing the antibody response with the flexibility and diversity to defend against an almost limitless array of varied and rapidly adapting pathogenic challenges. Discover the latest research on immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation here.

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Inflammation in the vasculature permits the migration of leukocytes through the vascular wall to resolve injury. However, unresolved inflammation is also pathogenic in such conditions as atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, or vasculitis. Find the latest research on inflammation of the vascular wall here.
Inflammation in the Vascular Wall

Inflammation in the vasculature permits the migration of leukocytes through the vascular wall to resolve injury. However, unresolved inflammation is also pathogenic in such conditions as atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, or vasculitis. Find the latest research on inflammation of the vascular wall here.

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Leukocyte migration is essential for reactions to inflammatory stimuli at various locations in the body. However, leukocyte movement is also crucial during non-inflammatory processes such as haematopoietic development and routine passage through secondary lymphoid organs, which is also required for effective antigen presentation. Discover the latest research on leukocyte migration here,
Leukocytes Migration
Influential

Leukocyte migration is essential for reactions to inflammatory stimuli at various locations in the body. However, leukocyte movement is also crucial during non-inflammatory processes such as haematopoietic development and routine passage through secondary lymphoid organs, which is also required for effective antigen presentation. Discover the latest research on leukocyte migration here,

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Lineage commitment is the consolidation of a distinct pattern of gene expression in a cell type distiguising it from its progenitor and other cells derived from its progentior cell. Here is the latest research.
Lineage Commitment
Fast Growing

Lineage commitment is the consolidation of a distinct pattern of gene expression in a cell type distiguising it from its progenitor and other cells derived from its progentior cell. Here is the latest research.

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Macrophages are phagocytic cells that are found in virtually all tissues. Upon activation by external stimuli, they can take on broadly inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes and aid in clearing infection or damaged cells and in tissue repair. Find the latest research on macrophage activation here.
Macrophage Activation

Macrophages are phagocytic cells that are found in virtually all tissues. Upon activation by external stimuli, they can take on broadly inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes and aid in clearing infection or damaged cells and in tissue repair. Find the latest research on macrophage activation here.

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Understanding the magnitude and the complexity of mast cell signaling is necessary to identify the mechanisms underlying the potential effector and regulatory roles of mast cells in the biology and pathology of those disease settings in which mast cells are activated. Here is the latest research. 

Mast Cell Signaling

Understanding the magnitude and the complexity of mast cell signaling is necessary to identify the mechanisms underlying the potential effector and regulatory roles of mast cells in the biology and pathology of those disease settings in which mast cells are activated. Here is the latest research. 


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Mast cells are key components involved in allergic reactions. They release chemical mediators that are responsible for the clinical symptoms of an allergic reaction. These chemical mediators include histamine, cytokines, leukotrienes and many others. Discover the latest research on mast cells in allergy here.
Mast Cells in Allergy
Fast Growing

Mast cells are key components involved in allergic reactions. They release chemical mediators that are responsible for the clinical symptoms of an allergic reaction. These chemical mediators include histamine, cytokines, leukotrienes and many others. Discover the latest research on mast cells in allergy here.

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Natural Killer (NK) cell activation is controlled by a dynamic balance between complementary and antagonistic pathways that are initiated upon interaction with potential target cells. Here is the latest research.

NK cell Activation

Natural Killer (NK) cell activation is controlled by a dynamic balance between complementary and antagonistic pathways that are initiated upon interaction with potential target cells. Here is the latest research.


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Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells of the innate immune system that respond to foreign or host cells displaying stress signals. NK cell activity is controlled by engagement of various cell surface receptors that induce activation or inhibitory pathways, the balance of which determines the cell’s phenotype. Find the latest research on NK cell signaling here.
NK cell Signaling

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic cells of the innate immune system that respond to foreign or host cells displaying stress signals. NK cell activity is controlled by engagement of various cell surface receptors that induce activation or inhibitory pathways, the balance of which determines the cell’s phenotype. Find the latest research on NK cell signaling here.

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Neutralizing antibodies bind to their target an impair the biological activity of the target, rather than simply flagging the target for host leukocytes. This is an approach that is being used in vaccine development. Find the latest research on neutralizing antibodies here.
Neutralizing Antibodies
Fast Growing

Neutralizing antibodies bind to their target an impair the biological activity of the target, rather than simply flagging the target for host leukocytes. This is an approach that is being used in vaccine development. Find the latest research on neutralizing antibodies here.

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Neutrophils are granulated phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. They express a variety of cell surface receptors which can induce activation and migration. Find the latest research on neutrophil receptors here.
Neutrophils and their Receptors

Neutrophils are granulated phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. They express a variety of cell surface receptors which can induce activation and migration. Find the latest research on neutrophil receptors here.

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Peripheral tolerance is the second branch of immunological tolerance that ensures that self reactive B and T cells do not result in autoimmunity. Here is the latest research on peripheral tolerance and memory.
Peripheral Tolerance and Memory

Peripheral tolerance is the second branch of immunological tolerance that ensures that self reactive B and T cells do not result in autoimmunity. Here is the latest research on peripheral tolerance and memory.

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Various platelet receptors allow the cells to sense perturbations (extracellular matrix through vessel walls) in their environment and initiate clotting when necessary in order to maintain homeostasis. Find the latest research on platelet receptors here.
Platelets and their Receptors
Fast Growing

Various platelet receptors allow the cells to sense perturbations (extracellular matrix through vessel walls) in their environment and initiate clotting when necessary in order to maintain homeostasis. Find the latest research on platelet receptors here.

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Selectins are a class of lectin molecule expressed on endothelial cells that permit leukocyte rolling and eventual extravasation. Targeting selectins may prove useful in modifying inflammation and for drug delivery to the endothelium.
Selectin–Mediating Drugs
Influential

Selectins are a class of lectin molecule expressed on endothelial cells that permit leukocyte rolling and eventual extravasation. Targeting selectins may prove useful in modifying inflammation and for drug delivery to the endothelium.

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Seroconversion is defined as the time when a specific antibody becomes detectable in the blood. Discover the latest research on seroconversion here.
Seroconversion
Fast Growing

Seroconversion is defined as the time when a specific antibody becomes detectable in the blood. Discover the latest research on seroconversion here.

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T cell activation is a crucial checkpoint in adaptive immunity, and this activation depends on the binding parameters that govern the interactions between T cell receptors and peptide-MHC complexes. Here is the latest research.
T cell Activation

T cell activation is a crucial checkpoint in adaptive immunity, and this activation depends on the binding parameters that govern the interactions between T cell receptors and peptide-MHC complexes. Here is the latest research.

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Differentiation of naive T cells into effector cells ensures optimal protection against pathogens and the development of immunological memory. Here is the latest research.
T cell Differentiation

Differentiation of naive T cells into effector cells ensures optimal protection against pathogens and the development of immunological memory. Here is the latest research.

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T cell education in the thymus is critical for establishing a functional, yet self-tolerant, t cell repertoire. Here is the latest research.
T cell Education in the Thymus
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T cell education in the thymus is critical for establishing a functional, yet self-tolerant, t cell repertoire. Here is the latest research.

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T cell antigen recognition is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which binds to antigen presented in the context of an MHC molecule on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. TCR specificity is highly unique as a result of random gene rearrangement. Find the latest research on T cell antigen recognition here.
T cells: Antigen Recognition

T cell antigen recognition is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which binds to antigen presented in the context of an MHC molecule on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. TCR specificity is highly unique as a result of random gene rearrangement. Find the latest research on T cell antigen recognition here.

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T cell activation requires engagement of both the T cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule. Lack of a co-stimulatory signal can result in T cell anergy, deletion, or immune tolerance. Find the latest research on T cell co-stimulatory receptors here.
T cells: Costimulatory Receptors
Going Viral

T cell activation requires engagement of both the T cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule. Lack of a co-stimulatory signal can result in T cell anergy, deletion, or immune tolerance. Find the latest research on T cell co-stimulatory receptors here.

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Cytokines play an important role in T cell development, priming, and effector functions. Cytokine receptors are of increasing interest as pharmacological targets in various disease states. Find the latest research on T cell cytokine receptors here.
T cells: Cytokine Receptors

Cytokines play an important role in T cell development, priming, and effector functions. Cytokine receptors are of increasing interest as pharmacological targets in various disease states. Find the latest research on T cell cytokine receptors here.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) is an important signaling molecule throughout the immune system. Recent work has focused on the differences in expression and signaling pathways (inflammation vs. tissue regeneration) mediated by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2 and the potential for targeting one subtype over the other for therapeutic interventions. Find the latest research on T cells and TNF receptors here.
T cells: TNF and Death Receptors

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) is an important signaling molecule throughout the immune system. Recent work has focused on the differences in expression and signaling pathways (inflammation vs. tissue regeneration) mediated by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2 and the potential for targeting one subtype over the other for therapeutic interventions. Find the latest research on T cells and TNF receptors here.

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T lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation are controlled by signaling pathways initiated by the T cell antigen receptor. Discover the latest research here on how key serine-threonine kinases and their substrates mediate T cell signaling and coordinate T cell metabolism to meet the metabolic demands of participating in an immune response
T lymphocyte proliferation & differentiation

T lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation are controlled by signaling pathways initiated by the T cell antigen receptor. Discover the latest research here on how key serine-threonine kinases and their substrates mediate T cell signaling and coordinate T cell metabolism to meet the metabolic demands of participating in an immune response

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V(D)J recombination is the specialized DNA rearrangement used by cells of the immune system to assemble immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes from the preexisting gene segments. Here is the latest research.
V(D)J Recombination
Going Viral

V(D)J recombination is the specialized DNA rearrangement used by cells of the immune system to assemble immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes from the preexisting gene segments. Here is the latest research.

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