Neurons & Neuroglia Biology
The midbrain dopamine system is widely studied for its involvement in emotional and motivational behavior. Some of these neurons receive information from the amygdala and project throughout the cortex. When the circuit and transmission of dopamine is disrupted symptoms may present. Here is the latest research on the amygdala and midbrain dopamine.
Astrocytes are glial cells that support the blood-brain barrier, facilitate neurotransmission, provide nutrients to neurons, and help repair damaged nervous tissues. Here is the latest research.
The relationship between astrocytes and amyloid has been suggested in some neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Neuronal damage stimulates the activation of reactive astrocytes, which may the source of amyloid that forms in Alzheimer’s. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and amyloid.
Astrocytes are abundant within the central nervous system and their dysfunction has been thought to be an important contributor to some neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Huntington’s disease. Damage to these cells may make neurons more susceptible to degeneration. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and Huntington’s disease.
Astrocytes are important for the health and function of the central nervous system. When these cells stop functioning properly, either through gain of function or loss of homeostatic controls, neurodegenerative diseases can occur. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and neurodegeneration.
Astrocytes are glial cells found within the CNS and are able to regenerate new neurons. They become activated during CNS injury and disease. The activation leads to the transcription of new genes and the repair and regeneration of neurons. Discover the latest research on astrocytes in repair and regeneration here.
Cytokines can affect the central nervous system through crossing the blood brain barrier and entering the CSF and interstitial fluid spaces. Some cytokines are able to cross through transport systems and can affect tissues within the CNS, whereas others are unable to cross. Here is the latest research on the blood brain barrier and cytokines.
The BBB is essential in regulating the movement of molecules and substances in and out of the brain. Disruption to the BBB and changes in permeability allows pathogens and inflammatory molecules to cross the barrier and may play a part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research on BBB regulation in health and disease.
Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.
Brain organoids are used to represent an in vitro model of the human brain. These brain organoids are derived from three-dimensional human pluripotent stem cells and can be used to help study brain biology, early brain development and different brain diseases. Discover the latest research on brain organoids in disease modeling here.
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is a highly aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor with a peak incidence in middle childhood and a median survival of less than 1 year. Here is the latest research.
Embryonic neural stem cells can be used to investigate the effect of different toxins and molecules on the proliferation and differentiation of these cells. Discover the latest research of embryonic neural stem cells here.
Endosomal-lysosomal processes are essential for degradation of unusable cellular material. Disruptions in these processes are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research.
Environmental factors play a role in neurological diseases and in particular their contribution in astrocyte proinflammation is of interest. The activation of astrocytes may be involved in neuroinflammation and implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here is the latest research on environment and astrocyte proinflammation.
Extracellular vesicles are implicated in propagating toxic amyloid proteins in neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research on extracellular vesicles including exosomes in the CNS.
GFRAL is a receptor for growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). These proteins play a role in regulating inflammatory pathways, as well as cell repair, apoptosis, and cell growth. Here is the latest research on GFRAL/GDF15-mediated signal transduction.
GRIP1 is a glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 and myeloid cells consists of granulocytes and monocytes, before they have differentiated and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The interaction between GRIP1 and myeloid cells in inflammation is in the early stages. Here is the latest research on GRIP1 and myeloid cells in inflammation.
GFRAL is a receptor for growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). These proteins play a role in regulating inflammatory pathways, as well as cell repair, apoptosis, cell growth, and body-weight regulation. Here is the latest research on the role of GFRAL-expressing neurons in reducing food intake.
Glial cells within the brain, particularly astrocytes and microglia, support synaptic transmission and neuron-glial circuit through the secretion of signaling molecules. The network of communication between glial cells and neurons is highly complex yet organized. Here is the latest research on glia and synaptic circuits.
Microbes in the gut communicate with the central nervous system (CNS) via at least three parallel and interacting channels including endocrine, nervous, and immune signaling. Here is the latest research on the brain-gut-microbiome axis.
Research within the last two decades has aimed to decipher the responsible molecular and cellular mechanisms for regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin neurons, which have a key role in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. Here is the latest research.
Interneurons are found throughout central nervous system and create important networks of connections between other sensory and motor neurons. The use of stem cells to artificially create interneurons enables the study and understanding of the role of the interneurons throughout the CNS. Here is the latest research on interneurons and stem cells.
This feed focuses on axonal transport pathways and the role of lysosomes and axon cargo transport in maintaining homeostasis in neurons.
This feed focuses on the C9orf72 protein and its possible role in lysosome function and implication in frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
The mechanism of axonal degeneration is still poorly understood, but studies in animal models have suggested some cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible. The degeneration of axons in the CNS has been found to be characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases. Discover the latest research on the mechanisms of axon degeneration here.
Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor that starts in the cerebellum and spreads through the cerebrospinal fluid to other parts of the CNS. Here is the latest research on this cancer.
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that are a readily available source of stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood. They have shown promise for the therapeutic potential in neurological diseases. Discover the latest research on mesenchymal stem cells and neurological diseases here.
Microglia are found throughout the brain and spinal cord and are the resident macrophages of the CNS. There have been investigations into the involvement of microglia in somatosensory sensory circuits within the spinal cord and associated diseases. Here is the latest research on microglia and spinal somatosensory circuits.
Microglia are resident macrophages of the CNS. They play a role in scavenging the CNS for plaques, phagocytosis, and extracellular signaling. Here is the latest research on their role in CNS diseases.
Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system and are thought to play a role in the repair of neurons following injury. The mechanism by which microglia are involved is still under investigation. Discover the latest research on microglia in neural tissue regeneration here.
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system. Microglia-derived inflammatory neurotoxins play a principal role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research on the role of microglia in health and disease.
Protein misfolding is the primary cause of several neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Here is the latest research.
This feed focuses on the molecular organization of synapses between two nerve cells, synaptic signal transduction, and synaptic vesicles. Here is the latest research on organization of synapses.
Myelin surrounds axons and is important for efficient axonal function. Formation of myelin is regulated by many signaling pathways. Degeneration is a target for many diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis and regeneration is associated with oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here is the latest research on myelin formation and repair.
Myeloid cells in the CNS are innate immune cells that are essential for brain development and maintenance. Here is the latest research on myeloid cells, including microglia, in neuroinflammation.
Oxytocin has been suggested to be involved in synaptic plasticity and adaptively modifying neural circuits for social interactions such as conspecific recognition, pair bonding, and maternal care. Find the latest research on neuronal circuits and oxytocin here.
This feed focuses on the use of proteomic and proteogenomic approaches in neurobiology and neurobiological disorders. Here is the latest research.
Neural stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. Several factors, including metabolism, have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation, and quiescence of neural stem cells. Here is the latest research.
This feed focuses on neuroblastoma in Zebrafish, as well as MYCN and ALK oncogenes which are highly expressed in neuroblastoma. Here is the latest research.
This feed focuses on genetic aspects of neurodegeneration and aging, with emphasis on the role of protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzhiemer’s. Here is the latest research.
Given that progression of neurodegenerative diseases can be driven by aggregation of misfolded proteins, autophagic activity is through to modulate the severity of neurodegenerative diseases. Here is the latest research on the influence of autophagy on neurodegeneration.
This feed focuses on the role of the endolysosome, an organelle involved in protein degradation. Defects in the endolysosome may cause neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s Disease.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory RNAs that control modulate gene expression in various biological processes and neurodegenerative disorders. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to miRNAs and neurodegeneration.
Progranulin is a secreted growth factor involved in inflammation, wound healing, cancer, and for its neurotrophic properties. Along with lipids (fats), these molcules are associated with neurodegenerative processes. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to these molecules and neurodegeneration.
There are diverse ranges of neurons, which are defined by their structural, functional, connectional and molecular properties. For example, some type of neurons includes sensory, sympathetic, and motor neurons. Discover the latest research on neuronal cell types here.
Neuronal plasticity is the brain’s ability to change its structure and function in response to internal or external factors. Here is the latest research on mechanisms that influence this process.
There are >50 peptides released by neurons that function as neuromodulators, neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and hormones. Here is the latest research on the systemic function of neuropeptides in the body.
Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in presynaptic neurons in response to neural activity, diffuse across the synaptic cleft, and bind specific receptors in order to bring about changes in postsynaptic neurons. Here is the latest research.
P2Y12 is a G-coupled receptor that is known for its role in platelet activation. However, the expression and involvement in the CNS and microglial activation and renewal is less known. Discover the latest research on P2Y12 and microglial self-renewal here.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be obtained by direct reprogramming of different somatic cells to a pluripotent state by forced expression of a handful of transcription factors. This feed focuses on the generation of neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus from iPSCs.
This feed focuses on different types of light therapies and methods, including optogenetics and low-level laser applications.
This feed focuses on subcellular and translation regulation of RNA in Axons and how this influences Axonal Functions. Discover the latest research here.
RPGRIP1L is a ciliary gene that is ubiquitously expressed in human embryonic and fetal tissues. It functions in neurodevelopment, including the development of hypothalamic arcuate neurons. Defects in this gene are associated with Joubert syndrome (type 7) and Meckel syndrome (type 5). Here is the latest research on the role of this gene in neurons.
Sexual dimorphism of neurons shows quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression and other features. Sexual dimorphism of neurons within the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but individual function of the sexually dimorphic neurons is poorly understood. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neuronal activity.
Single-cell RNA sequencing is a technique that is used to study an isolated selection of single-cells and obtaining their transcripts which are then used to generate sequence libraries. These can then be used to assess the diversity in the brain and understand neurological diseases. Here is the latest research on single-cell RNA in the brain.
As we age, the number of synapses present in the human brain starts to decline, but in neurodegenerative diseases this occurs at a much more rapid rate. In MS it has been shown that there is a reduction in synaptic density, which is a potential area to target for treatment. Here is the latest research on synapse loss as a therapeutic target in MS.
Synapses are essential for neuronal function. Synaptic loss and alterations are associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments, and have been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Here is the latest research on synaptic biochemistry.
Synaptic alterations are emerging as critical determinants of neurodegeneration. Here is the latest research on alterations of synaptic transmission and plasticity in neurodegeneration and neurodegerative disorders.
Wallerian Degeneration refers to active degeneration of part of the axon distal to the injury in response to nerve fiber damage. Here is the latest research on aspects underlying this degeneration