Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cancer. By evading apoptosis, tumors can continue to grow without regulation and metastasize systemically. Many therapies are evaluating the use of pro-apoptotic activation to eliminate cancer growth. Here is the latest research on apoptosis in cancer.
Autophagy preserves the health of cells and tissues by replacing outdated and damaged cellular components with fresh ones. In starvation, it provides an internal source of nutrients for energy generation and, thus, survival. A powerful promoter of metabolic homeostasis at both the cellular and whole-animal level, autophagy prevents degenerative diseases. It does have a downside, however--cancer cells exploit it to survive in nutrient-poor tumors.
Autophagy leads to degradation of damaged proteins and organelles by the lysosome. Impaired autophagy has been implicated in several diseases. Here is the role of autophagy in cancer and Parkinson’s.
Alterations in cell adhesion can disrupt important cellular processes and lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer and arthritis. It is also essential for infectious organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, to cause diseases. Understanding the biophysics of cell adhesion can help understand these diseases. Discover the latest research on the biophysics of adhesion here.
Molecular imaging enables noninvasive imaging of key molecules that are crucial to tumor biology. Discover the latest research in molecular imaging in cancer biology in this feed.
Imaging techniques, including CT and MR, have become essential to tumor detection, diagnosis, and monitoring. Here is the latest research on cancer imaging.
In order for cancer cells to maintain rapid, uncontrolled cell proliferation, they must acquire a source of energy. Cancer cells acquire metabolic energy from their surrounding environment and utilize the host cell nutrients to do so. Here is the latest research on cancer metabolism.
Migration of cancer cells into surrounding tissue and the vasculature is an initial step in tumor metastasis. Discover the latest research on cell migration in cancer and metastasis here.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. RTKs have been shown not only to be key regulators of normal cellular processes but also to have a critical role in the development and progression of many types of cancer. Discover the latest research on cell signaling and RTK here.
Circadian rhythms are natural, internal processes that regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Chronic disruptions in circadian rhythms have been associated with the development of a variety of diseases including cancer. Here is the latest research on circadian rhythms and cancer.
Circular RNA (circRNA) are stable non-coding RNAs implicated in gene regulation, cell differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Their role as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and as a possible therapeutic target is currently under investigation. Here is the latest research on circRNAs in cancer.
Collective cell migration is the coordinated movement of cells, which organize tissues during morphogenesis, repair and some cancers. Here is the latest research.
Complement activation in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor growth and increases metastasis.
CpG sites are genomic loci where cytosine is followed by a guanine along its 5’ to 3’ direction. CpG sites are common in CpG islands and its methylation has been implicated in cancer, aging, and gene silencing. Here is the latest research.
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a process where epithelial cell properties are lost, such as polarity, and mesenchymal cell properties are gained, such as migratory phenotypes. EMT is implicated in cancer progression and the metastatic process. Discover the latest research here.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) ensures tissue integrity and play a role in cell growth, migration, and differentiation. ECM abnormalities play a key role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here is the latest research on ECM in cancer.
This feed explores the function of fusion oncoproteins in specific childhood cancers, including those from racial/ethnic minority and underserved groups, and to provide preclinical assessment of potential therapeutics and how fusion oncoproteins influence gene expression to perturb normal cellular programs to block lineage differentiation and development
Histone methyltransferases, as chromatin modifiers, regulate the transcriptomic landscape in normal development as well in diseases such as cancer. Here is the latest research.
The Human Tumor Atlas is a collaborative project that uses detailed maps of a variety of cancers to investigate cancer development, metastasis, and treatments.
Hypoxia has been reported to be associated with metastatic processes. Here is the latest research on hypoxian and metastasis.
The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway is overactive in several cancer types. The increased activity of this pathway enhances tumor growth proliferation, survival and increases metastases of cancer cells. The target of the pathway to inhibit tumor growth is currently being explored. Here is the latest research on the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway in cancer.
Immuno-oncology (or cancer immunotherapy) is the artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer, improving on the immune system's natural ability to fight cancer. It exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules. Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the tumor antigens marking and identifying the cancer cells for the immune system to inhibit or kill. Discover the latest research on immuno-oncology here.
Inflammation has been implicated in initiation and progression of tumors, as well as elimination of cancerous cells. Here is the latest research on the role of inflammation in cancer.
The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors regulate diverse functions in cells and are implicated in the development, progression, and metastasis of solid tumors. Here is the latest research.
NRF2 is primarily regulated by KEAP1 and is implicated in protecting cancer cells from chemotherapy and plays a role in cancer progression. Here is the latest research on KEAP1-NRF2 signal transduction pathway.
Kinases are enzymes that transfer a phosphate group to a protein while phosphatases remove a phosphate group from protein. Kinases play a crucial role in the carcinogenesis and metastases of various types of cancer. Kinase inhibitors such as dasatinib are often used in the treatment of cancer and inflammation.
Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria and an important hub for metabolic processes that is dysregulated in cancer. Discover the latest research here.
Genetically engineered mouse models provide researchers with a better understanding of cancer genes and tumor biomarkers, the mechanisms underlying tumor initiation and metastasis, and novel therapeutic strategies in cancer. Discover the latest research on mouse models in cancer here.
MDSC (myeloid-derived suppressor cells) are a heterogenous group of immune cells from the myeloid lineage. MDSCs strongly expand in pathological situations such as chronic infections and cancer, as a result of an altered haematopoiesis. MDSCs are discriminated from other myeloid cell types in which they possess strong immunosuppressive activities rather than immunostimulatory properties.
Nuclear factor-κB (NFkB) signaling is an important pathway for regulating inflammation and is dysregulated in cancer. Chronic inflammation is involved in cancer development and progression. Discover the latest research here.
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal transduction pathway is crucial for cell cycle, thus directly regulates cell proliferation, longevity, and cancer. Here is the latest research on this intracellular signaling pathway.
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) tumour suppressor is a PI (phosphoinositide) 3-phosphatase that can inhibit cellular proliferation, survival and growth by inactivating PI 3-kinase-dependent signalling. It also suppresses cellular motility through mechanisms that may be partially independent of phosphatase activity. PTEN is one of the most commonly lost tumour suppressors in human cancer, and its deregulation is also implicated in several other diseases.
RNA helicases are motor enzymes that unwind RNA and are essential for several RNA metabolism processes including ribosome biogenesis, translation initiation, and pre-mRNA splicing. Defects in RNA helicases are associated with cancers, infectious diseases, as well as neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found to be present in many cancers, having both pro-tumor promoting effects and anti-tumor signalling effects. The balance between the levels of ROS and tumorigenesis is still unclear. Discover the latest research on ROS signalling in cancer here.
Chemotaxis is the directional migration of cells in response to extracellular chemoattractent gradients. This process is crucial for the development of multicellular organisms and immune responses, in cancer metastasis and inflammatory disease, and for bacterial survival. Understanding the mechanisms regulating chemotaxis will be important for understanding mechanisms underlying development and disease.
Expression levels and/or activity of Rho GTPases is altered in most cancers. Rho GTPase signaling could therefore be therapeutically targeted in cancer treatment.
Autophagy is an regulated intracellular process that allow degradation and recycling of cellular components. It plays a dual role in tumor promotion and tumor suppression. Here is the latest research on its role in cancer.
Telomeres protect our genetic data and are found at the end of chromosomes. When a cell divides, telomeres become shorter. This process has been associated with the development of cancer. Here is the latest research on telomeres in cancer.
Mitochondria, the powerhouse of cells, play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and directly influence cancer metabolism and alter response of the tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. Discover the latest research on tumor cell mitochondria here.
The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is composed of hetereogenous immune cells that have infiltrated the tumor, and is a central target of cancer immunotherapies. Characterization of the TIME is key to predicting response and development of immunotherapy. Discover the latest research here.
Cancer cells have been found to compose many different types of cells. The heterogeneity of cancer tumors invokes a challenge when it comes to deciding on which therapeutic option(s) will be most beneficial. Discover the latest research on tumor heterogeneity here.
p53 is a transcription factor that is involved in several cellular processes, including cell cycle arrest, cellular apoptosis, cell death and cell senescence. Mutations in the wild type p53 gene has been implicated in a significant number of cancers. Here is the latest research on p53 pathways.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, also known as tRNA-ligases, are enzymes that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its transfer RNA. Mutations in these enzymes have been linked to several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth and cancer. Here is the latest research.