Viral Infections (excluding HIV)
Acute viral rhinopharyngitis, also known as "common cold", is an acute, self-limiting viral infection of the upper respiratory tract involving the nose, sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Discover the latest research on acute viral rhinopharyngitis here.
Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is an endemo-epidemic disease caused by junín virus (JUNV), a member of the arenaviridae family. Discover the latest research on AHF here.
BK virus infection is a significant complication of modern immunosuppression used in kidney transplantation. Discover the latest research on BK virus infection here.
Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.
COVID-19 (short for “Coronavirus Disease 2019") is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. COVID-19 represents a particular challenge to people with serious chronic medical conditions such as diabetes. To keep our community as informed as possible, the American Diabetes Association is partnering with the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative's Meta to highlight the latest research developments at the intersection of COVID-19 and diabetes.
Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus and leads to skin rashes and blisters. This highly contagious disease can be prevented with vaccines and treated with antivirals. Discover the latest research on Chickenpox here.
Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of chikungunya virus infected aedes mosquitoes. Discover the latest research on chikungunya here.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal tick-borne viral disease and one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers.The onset of CCHF is sudden, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, and vomiting. Red eyes, a flushed face, a red throat, and petechiae (red spots) on the palate are common. Discover the latest research on CCHF here.
Cytomegalovirus is a common infection among adults with little to no symptoms. Cytomegalovirus infection among immunocompromised hosts or organ transplant recipients can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Discover the latest research here.
Dengue Virus, a mosquito transmitted pathogen, is the causative agent of dengue fever, the most important arboviral disease of humans, which affects an estimated 50-100 million people annually. Discover the latest research here.
The recent ebola outbreak in west Africa has stressed the need for advances in research to develop a vaccine against this deadly virus. Much progress has been made in pre-clinical and clinical studies and future vaccines for the ebola virus look promising. Here is the latest research on ebola vaccines.
Ebola Virus causes ebola virus disease, and is one of the deadliest pathogens known to man, with a mortality rate between 25-90% depending on the species and outbreak of ebola. Discover the latest research on Ebola Virus.
Emerging Infectious Diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. Discover the latest research on Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Enteric rotavirus is a common viral infection in infants and children that leads to severe diarrhea. Discover the latest research on enteric rotavirus here.
Enteroids are organoids derived from the small intestine. Discover the latest research on enteroids here.
Enterovirus is a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. enterovirus infections are common in both children and adults and range from benign short-lived febrile illnesses to life-threatening infections. Discover the latest research on enterovirus infection here.
The Epstein-Barr virus or human herpesvirus 4 is a common virus in humans. It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis, but is also associated with many malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Find the latest research on Epstein-Barr virus infection here.
Gas gangrene, also known as clostridial myonecrosis, is a severe and acute infection usually caused by clostridium septicum, which may contaminate a wound. Here is the latest research.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused mostly by coxsackievirus a16 and enterovirus 71. Here is the latest research.
Hepatitis A is an acute, necroinflammatory disease of the liver which results from infection by the hepatitis a virus. Here is the latest research.
Hepatitis B virus is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide and is associated with acute, fulminant, and chronic hepatitis, as well as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here is the latest research.
Hepatitis C virus causes acute and chronic liver disease in humans, including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Discover the latest research on Hepatitis C here.
Hepatitis D virus is a satellite virus whose life cycle is dependent on the presence of the hepatitis B. This can lead to a severe form of viral hepatitis in humans. Discover the latest research on Hepatitis D here.
Hepatitis e, caused by infection with hepatitis e virus, is a common cause of enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries. Here is the latest research.
Herpes simplex virus infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and are classified as either type 1 (cold sores) or type 2 (genital herpes). Discover the latest research on Herpes Simplex Virus here.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection that is associated with the development of cervical and head and neck cancers. Discover the latest research on Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection here.
The immune reactions to nonenveloped viruses are predominantly humoral responses against extracellular viruses, a process that results in lysis and death of the infected cell, and because viral antigens are not present on the cell membrane. In contrast, cell-mediated immunity, together with humoral immune response, plays a major role in the defense against enveloped viral infections. Discover the latest research on immunology and virus here.
Infectious Disease Sequencing is a emerging field due to low-cost massively parallel sequencing and allows researchers to monitor outbreaks of infectious pathogens. Discover the latest research on Infectious Disease Sequencing here.
Pyroptosis is a form of necrotic and inflammatory programmed cell death induced by inflammatory caspases, one of which is activated by Inflammasome, a multiprotein oligomer responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses. Discover the latest research on inflammasome and pyroptosis here.
Influenza viruses comprise a major class of human respiratory pathogens, responsible for causing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Discover the latest research on Influenza Viruses here.
Via interaction with their specific receptors, interferons (IFNs) activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes. STAT activation initiates the classical Janus kinase-STAT (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway. In this pathway, JAKs associate with IFN receptors and, following receptor engagement with IFN, phosphorylate both STAT1 and STAT2. As a result, an IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex forms—this contains STAT1, STAT2 and a third transcription factor called IRF9—and moves into the cell nucleus. Inside the nucleus, the ISGF3 complex binds to specific nucleotide sequences called IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs) in the promoters of certain genes, known as IFN stimulated genes. Discover the latest research on interferon signalling here.
Interferon-stimulated gene products take on a number of diverse roles. Collectively, they are highly effective at resisting and controlling pathogens. Discover the latest research on interferon-stimulated genes here.
Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is caused by the Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus, a human zoonosis caused by a rodent-borne arenavirus, which been associated with both postnatal and intrauterine human diseases. Here is the latest research.
Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man. Discover the latest research on measles here.
Human metapneumovirus infection is a leading cause of respiratory tract infection in the first years of life, with a spectrum of disease similar to that of respiratory syncytial virus. Here is the latest research.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel coronavirus that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, emerged in the middle east in 2012. Here is the latest research.
Molluscum contagiosum, or water warts, is a viral infection of the skin by the molluscum contagiosum virus. Lesions are small, raised, and pink, and resolve within a year. Find the latest research on molluscum contagiosum here.
Mumps is an infection caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms can include fever, muscle pain, and swelling of the parotid gland, while complications can include pancreatitis or meningitis. Find the latest research on mumps here.
Natural Killer (NK) cells are critical for the containment of viral replication, particularly during early infection. Some viruses such as HIV and influenza have developed mechanisms to evade NK detection and infect the host. Here is the latest research on NK cells and viral immunity.
Nipah virus infection is an emerging zoonotic infection which presents with acute encephalitis and respiratory distress syndrome. Discover the latest research on Nipah Virus Infection here.
Noroviruses are the most commonly identified cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. Discover the latest research on Noroviruses here.
Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a viral disease that can rarely lead to paralysis. This disease is nearly eradicated due to vaccination. Discover the latest research on Poliomyelitis here.
Rabies is a lethal viral diseased caused by the Rabies virus. Symptoms include fever and hydrophobia. Discover the latest research on Rabies here.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a respiratory illness in both children and adults. Discover the latest research on RSV here.
Rift Valley fever is a viral infection caused by the RVF virus. It is transmitted to humans via contact with animals or by mosquitoes. In severe cases, patients can experience hemorrhagic fever symptoms or neurological symptoms, and the disease can be fatal. Find the latest research on Rift Valley fever here.
Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Here is the latest research.
Rubella remains an important pathogen worldwide, with roughly 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome estimated to occur every year. Here is the latest research.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Initial symptoms are flu-like and may include fever, muscle pain, lethargy symptoms, cough, sore throat, and other nonspecific symptoms. SARS may eventually lead to shortness of breath and pneumonia; either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. DIscover the latest research on SARS here.
Shingles is a viral infection caused by the Varicella-Zoster Virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. Discover the latest research on shingles here.
Smallpox is caused by two variants of the variola virus, variola major and variola minor. It was eradicated in 1977, however it remains a concern owing to its potential use in bioterrorism. Discover the latest research on Smallpox here.
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers caused by ebola, marburg and lassa viruses often manifest as multiple organ dysfunction and hemorrhagic shock with high mortality. Discover the latest research on Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers here.
Viral respiratory tract infections can have profound effects on important aspects of asthma. Discover the latest research on viral infections and asthma here.
Viral pneumonias account for at least 17% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia in children and in adults. Here is the latest research.
West Nile virus is primarily a mosquito-borne illness that manifests as an asymptomatic infection, west nile fever, and/or west nile neuroinvasive disease. Discover the latest research on West Nile Virus here.
Yellow Fever is a potentially fatal viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes and causes hemorrhagic fever. Other symptoms include jaundice, muscle pain, headache and nausea. Discover the latest research here.
Zika fever is an infectious disease caused by the Zika virus.Most cases have no symptoms, but when present they are usually mild and can resemble dengue fever. Symptoms may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, and a maculopapular rash.Disocver the latest research on Zika fever here.
The challenges in developing a safe and effective Zika virus vaccine include limiting side effects such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Discover the latest research on Zika vaccines here.