Immuno-oncology (or cancer immunotherapy) is the artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer, improving on the immune system's natural ability to fight cancer. It exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules. Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the tumor antigens marking and identifying the cancer cells for the immune system to inhibit or kill. Discover the latest research on immuno-oncology here.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is associated with the death of neurons that control voluntary muscles. This feed followes the latest research into therapies for this progressive neurodegenerative disease.
Allogenic therapies are generated in large batches from unrelated donor tissues such as bone marrow. In contrast, autologous therapies are manufactures as a single lot from the patient being treated. Here is the latest research on allogenic and autologous therapies.
Three different types of anthrax vaccines are available; a live-attenuated, an alum-precipitated cell-free filtrate and a protein recombinant vaccine. The effectiveness between the three is uncertain, but the live-attenuated have shown to reduce the risk of anthrax with low adverse events. Here is the latest research on anthrax vaccines.
Anti-arrhythmic drugs are used to prevent abnormal heart rhythms. These medications are used in conditions including, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and atrial fibrillation. Discover the latest research on anti-arrhythmic drug therapies here.
A drug or substance that reduces inflammation (redness, swelling, and pain) in the body. Anti-inflammatory agents block certain substances in the body that cause inflammation and swelling. Discover the latest research on anti-inflammatory treatments here
Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cancer. By evading apoptosis, tumors can continue to grow without regulation and metastasize systemically. Many therapies are evaluating the use of pro-apoptotic activation to eliminate cancer growth. Here is the latest research on apoptosis in cancer.
Astrocytes are glial cells found within the CNS and are able to regenerate new neurons. They become activated during CNS injury and disease. The activation leads to the transcription of new genes and the repair and regeneration of neurons. Discover the latest research on astrocytes in repair and regeneration here.
Autophagy preserves the health of cells and tissues by replacing outdated and damaged cellular components with fresh ones. In starvation, it provides an internal source of nutrients for energy generation and, thus, survival. A powerful promoter of metabolic homeostasis at both the cellular and whole-animal level, autophagy prevents degenerative diseases. It does have a downside, however--cancer cells exploit it to survive in nutrient-poor tumors.
Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. Here is the latest research.
Alterations in cell adhesion can disrupt important cellular processes and lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer and arthritis. It is also essential for infectious organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, to cause diseases. Understanding the biophysics of cell adhesion can help understand these diseases. Discover the latest research on the biophysics of adhesion here.