RPGRIP1L is a ciliary gene that is ubiquitously expressed in human embryonic and fetal tissues. It functions in neurodevelopment, including the development of hypothalamic arcuate neurons. Defects in this gene are associated with Joubert syndrome (type 7) and Meckel syndrome (type 5). Here is the latest research on the role of this gene in neurons.
The midbrain dopamine system is widely studied for its involvement in emotional and motivational behavior. Some of these neurons receive information from the amygdala and project throughout the cortex. When the circuit and transmission of dopamine is disrupted symptoms may present. Here is the latest research on the amygdala and midbrain dopamine.
Astrocytes are glial cells that support the blood-brain barrier, facilitate neurotransmission, provide nutrients to neurons, and help repair damaged nervous tissues. Here is the latest research.
The relationship between astrocytes and amyloid has been suggested in some neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Neuronal damage stimulates the activation of reactive astrocytes, which may the source of amyloid that forms in Alzheimer’s. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and amyloid.
Astrocytes are abundant within the central nervous system and their dysfunction has been thought to be an important contributor to some neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Huntington’s disease. Damage to these cells may make neurons more susceptible to degeneration. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and Huntington’s disease.
Astrocytes are important for the health and function of the central nervous system. When these cells stop functioning properly, either through gain of function or loss of homeostatic controls, neurodegenerative diseases can occur. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and neurodegeneration.
Astrocytes are glial cells found within the CNS and are able to regenerate new neurons. They become activated during CNS injury and disease. The activation leads to the transcription of new genes and the repair and regeneration of neurons. Discover the latest research on astrocytes in repair and regeneration here.
Cytokines can affect the central nervous system through crossing the blood brain barrier and entering the CSF and interstitial fluid spaces. Some cytokines are able to cross through transport systems and can affect tissues within the CNS, whereas others are unable to cross. Here is the latest research on the blood brain barrier and cytokines.
The BBB is essential in regulating the movement of molecules and substances in and out of the brain. Disruption to the BBB and changes in permeability allows pathogens and inflammatory molecules to cross the barrier and may play a part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research on BBB regulation in health and disease.
Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.
Brain organoids are used to represent an in vitro model of the human brain. These brain organoids are derived from three-dimensional human pluripotent stem cells and can be used to help study brain biology, early brain development and different brain diseases. Discover the latest research on brain organoids in disease modeling here.