T cell activation requires engagement of both the T cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule. Lack of a co-stimulatory signal can result in T cell anergy, deletion, or immune tolerance. Find the latest research on T cell co-stimulatory receptors here.
Antibody-mediated agglutination is the clumping of cells in the presence of antibody, which binds multiple cells together. This enhances the clearance of pathogens. Find the latest research on antibody-mediated agglutination here.
The complement system can be activated by antigen-associated antibody. In the classical pathway of complement activation, C1q, C4b, and C3b are all able to bind to the Fc portion of IgG or IgM. Find the latest research on antibodies and complement activation here.
Development of antibodies require integration of knowledge with respect to target antigen properties, antibody design criteria such as affinity, isotype selection, Fc domain engineering, and antibody cross-reactivity across species from the early stages of antibody development. Here is the latest research.
Antibodies produced by B cells are highly specific for antigen as a result of random gene recombination and somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. As the main effector of the humoral immune system, antibodies can neutralize foreign cells. Find the latest research on antibody specificity here.
Antibodies have various functions including neutralization of pathogens, tumor targeting, as well as its utility in biomedical research. Here is the latest research on antibody synthesis.
Antibody-dependent cellular toxicity refers to the lysis of a target cell by a non-sensitized effector cell of the immune system as a result of antibodies binding to the target cell membrane and engaging the Fc receptors on the immune effector cells. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent cellular toxicity here.
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is the entry of virus into host cells mediated by antiviral antibodies interacting with Fc or complement receptors. This has been most extensively observed with the dengue virus. Find the latest research on antibody-dependent enhancement here.
Antigenic modulation occurs when an antibody cross-links antigens on a cell surface, causing the antigens to become internalized. This can lead to therapeutic failure of monoclonal antibodies as the expression of the antigen becomes decreased on target cells. Find the latest research on antigenic modulation here.
B cell activation is initiated by the ligation of the B cell receptor with antigen and ultimately results in the production of protective antibodies against potentially pathogenic invaders. Here is the latest research.
Depending on the signal received through the B cell receptor and other receptors, B cells differentiate into follicular or marginal zone B cells. Here is the latest research pertaining to this differentiation process.