α-Actinin-3 deficiency is associated with reduced bone mass in human and mouse

Bone
Nan YangK N North

Abstract

Bone mineral density (BMD) is a complex trait that is the single best predictor of the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variations in approximately 30 genetic loci associated with BMD variation in humans. α-Actinin-3 (ACTN3) is highly expressed in fast skeletal muscle fibres. There is a common null-polymorphism R577X in human ACTN3 that results in complete deficiency of the α-actinin-3 protein in approximately 20% of Eurasians. Absence of α-actinin-3 does not cause any disease phenotypes in muscle because of compensation by α-actinin-2. However, α-actinin-3 deficiency has been shown to be detrimental to athletic sprint/power performance. In this report we reveal additional functions for α-actinin-3 in bone. α-Actinin-3 but not α-actinin-2 is expressed in osteoblasts. The Actn3(-/-) mouse displays significantly reduced bone mass, with reduced cortical bone volume (-14%) and trabecular number (-61%) seen by microCT. Dynamic histomorphometry indicated this was due to a reduction in bone formation. In a cohort of postmenopausal Australian women, ACTN3 577XX genotype was associated with lower BMD in an additive genetic model, with the R577X genotype contributi...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

ACTN3 protein, human
Actn3 protein, mouse
Eu-Actinin
Skeletal Bone
Bone Marrow Cells
Bone Resorption
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Osteogenesis
Colony-forming Unit
Tomography, X-Ray Computerized Axial

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