With the introduction of the electronic 4-dimensional and spatial-temporal image Correlation (e-STIC), it is now possible to obtain large volume datasets of the fetal heart that are virtually free of artifact. This allows the examiner to use a number of imaging modalities when recording the volumes that include two-dimensional real time, power and color Doppler, and B-flow images. Once the volumes are obtained, manipulation of the volume dataset allows the examiner to recreate views of the fetal heart that enable examination of cardiac anatomy. The value of this technology is that a volume of the fetal heart can be obtained, irrespective of the position of the fetus in utero, and manipulated to render images for interpretation and diagnosis. This article presents a summary of the various imaging techniques and provides clinical examples of its application used for prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects and abnormal cardiac function.
Doppler echocardiographic assessment of atrioventricular velocity waveforms in normal and small-for-gestational-age fetuses
Fetal echocardiography. VII. Doppler color flow mapping: a new technique for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease
Fetal echocardiography. VI. Assessment of cardiothoracic disproportion--a new technique for the diagnosis of thoracic hypoplasia
The use of the abdominal circumference as a means of assessing M-mode ventricular dimensions during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in the normal human fetus
Fetal echocardiography. V. M-mode measurements of the aortic root and aortic valve in second- and third-trimester normal human fetuses
Fetal echocardiography. IV. M-mode assessment of ventricular size and contractility during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in the normal fetus
Fetal echocardiography. A tool for evaluation of in utero cardiac arrhythmias and monitoring of in utero therapy: analysis of 71 patients
The in utero diagnosis of an interventricular septal cardiac rhabdomyoma by means of real-time-directed, M-mode echocardiography
Real-time--directed M-mode echocardiography: a new technique for accurate and rapid quantitation of the fetal preejection period and ventricular ejection time of the right and left ventricles
The use of color Doppler ultrasound to identify fetuses at increased risk for trisomy 21: an alternative for high-risk patients who decline genetic amniocentesis
Simultaneous Doppler recording of the pulmonary artery and vein: a new technique for the evaluation of a fetal arrhythmia
Usefulness of gated three-dimensional fetal echocardiography to reconstruct and display structures not visualized with two-dimensional imaging
The genetic sonogram: its use in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses of women of advanced maternal age
Color Doppler examination of the outflow tracts of the fetal heart: a technique for identification of cardiovascular malformations
Ductus venosus index: a method for evaluating right ventricular preload in the second-trimester fetus
Tricuspid regurgitation in the diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in the fetus at 11-14 weeks of gestation
Spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC): a new tool for the prenatal screening of congenital heart defects
Real-time 3-dimensional fetal echocardiography with an instantaneous volume-rendered display: early description and pictorial essay
Three-dimensional (3D) and 4D color Doppler fetal echocardiography using spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC)
The 'spin' technique: a new method for examination of the fetal outflow tracts using three-dimensional ultrasound
Validation of volume and mass assessments for human fetal heart imaging by 4-dimensional spatiotemporal image correlation echocardiography: in vitro balloon model experiments
An In-depth Perspective of Aortic Arch Branching in Fetal Vascular Rings Using Spatiotemporal Image Correlation Combined With High-definition Flow Imaging: Report of 4 Cases
Electronic versus conventional spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) fetal echocardiography: a direct comparison
The construction and application of an ultrasound and anatomical cross-sectional database of structural malformations of the fetal heart.
Prenatal evaluation of fetal atrioventricular valves by real-time 4D volume imaging with electronic matrix probe.
Fetal Vascular Rings and Pulmonary Slings: Strategies for Two- and Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Diagnosis.
Fetal speckle-tracking echocardiography: a comparison between two-dimensional and electronic spatio-temporal image correlation (e-STIC) technique.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.