4D fetal echocardiography-An update

Echocardiography
G R DeVoreMark Sklansky

Abstract

With the introduction of the electronic 4-dimensional and spatial-temporal image Correlation (e-STIC), it is now possible to obtain large volume datasets of the fetal heart that are virtually free of artifact. This allows the examiner to use a number of imaging modalities when recording the volumes that include two-dimensional real time, power and color Doppler, and B-flow images. Once the volumes are obtained, manipulation of the volume dataset allows the examiner to recreate views of the fetal heart that enable examination of cardiac anatomy. The value of this technology is that a volume of the fetal heart can be obtained, irrespective of the position of the fetus in utero, and manipulated to render images for interpretation and diagnosis. This article presents a summary of the various imaging techniques and provides clinical examples of its application used for prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects and abnormal cardiac function.

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Citations

Dec 12, 2018·Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine·Jenn-Jhy TsengShen-Ling Jan
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Nov 10, 2020·Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : Official Publication of the American Society of Echocardiography·Yu Wang, Ying Zhang
Apr 8, 2021·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Maria Gaia DodaroGianluigi Pilu

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