Congenital heart disease (CHD), the most common congenital malformation, is associated with adverse outcome. Development of fetal echocardiography has made prenatal diagnosis of CHD a reality, and in the process revolutionized its management. This historical review briefly narrates this development over the decades focusing on the emergence of the primary modalities of fetal echocardiography comprised of the time-motion mode, two-dimensional B-mode, spectral Doppler, color Doppler, and three- and four-dimensional cardiac imaging. Collaboration between clinicians and engineers has been central to these advances. Also discussed are the accuracy and impact of fetal echocardiography on the management of CHD, and especially its role in the prenatal diagnosis of critical CHD in individualizing the management and improving the outcome. Despite these advances, most cases of CHD are not identified prenatally, emphasizing the continuing need for further technological and educational innovation and improvement.
Fetal echocardiography. VII. Doppler color flow mapping: a new technique for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease
Fetal atrioventricular valve insufficiency associated with nonimmune hydrops: a two-dimensional echocardiographic and pulsed Doppler ultrasound study
The development of real-time two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and its clinical significance in acquired valvular diseases. With special reference to the evaluation of valvular regurgitation
Three-dimensional echocardiography for spatial visualization and volume calculation of cardiac structures
Quantitative real-time cross-sectional echocardiography in the developing normal humam fetus and newborn
Detection of transposition of the great arteries in fetuses reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality
Comparison of outcome when hypoplastic left heart syndrome and transposition of the great arteries are diagnosed prenatally versus when diagnosis of these two conditions is made only postnatally
The use of ultrasonic reflectoscope for the continuous recording of the movements of heart walls. 1954
Accuracy of fetal echocardiography in the routine detection of congenital heart disease among unselected and low risk populations: a systematic review
Echocardiography in the fetus--a systematic comparative analysis of standard cardiac views with 2D, 3D reconstructive and 3D real-time echocardiography
Performance of different scan protocols of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal congenital heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Prenatal diagnosis, birth location, surgical center, and neonatal mortality in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Prenatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease reduces risk of death from cardiovascular compromise prior to planned neonatal cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis
Risk-stratified postnatal care of newborns with congenital heart disease determined by fetal echocardiography
Association of Prenatal Diagnosis of Critical Congenital Heart Disease With Postnatal Brain Development and the Risk of Brain Injury
The first Fetal Echocardiography experience for Prenatal diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in Lebanon: Successes and challenges
Ultrahigh-Frequency Echocardiography of Autonomic Devoid Phox2B Homozygous Embryos Does Not Reveal a Significant Cardiac Phenotype before Embryo Death.
Global prevalence of congenital heart disease in school-age children: a meta-analysis and systematic review.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.