A cell plate-specific callose synthase and its interaction with phragmoplastin

The Plant Cell
Z HongDesh Pal S Verma


Callose is synthesized on the forming cell plate and several other locations in the plant. We cloned an Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a callose synthase (CalS1) catalytic subunit. The CalS1 gene comprises 42 exons with 41 introns and is transcribed into a 6.0-kb mRNA. The deduced peptide, with an approximate molecular mass of 226 kD, showed sequence homology with the yeast 1,3-beta-glucan synthases and is distinct from plant cellulose synthases. CalS1 contains 16 predicted transmembrane helices with the N-terminal region and a large central loop facing the cytoplasm. CalS1 interacts with two cell plate--associated proteins, phragmoplastin and a novel UDP-glucose transferase that copurifies with the CalS complex. That CalS1 is a cell plate--specific enzyme is demonstrated by the observations that the green fluorescent protein--CalS1 fusion protein was localized at the growing cell plate, that expression of CalS1 in transgenic tobacco cells enhanced callose synthesis on the forming cell plate, and that these cell lines exhibited higher levels of CalS activity. These data also suggest that plant CalS may form a complex with UDP-glucose transferase to facilitate the transfer of substrate for callose synthesis.


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