A continuum of anionic charge: structures and functions of D-alanyl-teichoic acids in gram-positive bacteria

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR


Teichoic acids (TAs) are major wall and membrane components of most gram-positive bacteria. With few exceptions, they are polymers of glycerol-phosphate or ribitol-phosphate to which are attached glycosyl and D-alanyl ester residues. Wall TA is attached to peptidoglycan via a linkage unit, whereas lipoteichoic acid is attached to glycolipid intercalated in the membrane. Together with peptidoglycan, these polymers make up a polyanionic matrix that functions in (i) cation homeostasis; (ii) trafficking of ions, nutrients, proteins, and antibiotics; (iii) regulation of autolysins; and (iv) presentation of envelope proteins. The esterification of TAs with D-alanyl esters provides a means of modulating the net anionic charge, determining the cationic binding capacity, and displaying cations in the wall. This review addresses the structures and functions of D-alanyl-TAs, the D-alanylation system encoded by the dlt operon, and the roles of TAs in cell growth. The importance of dlt in the physiology of many organisms is illustrated by the variety of mutant phenotypes. In addition, advances in our understanding of D-alanyl ester function in virulence and host-mediated responses have been made possible through targeted mutagenesis of dlt....Continue Reading


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