The brain's response to sensory input is strikingly modulated by behavioral state. Notably, the visual response of mouse primary visual cortex (V1) is enhanced by locomotion, a tractable and accessible example of a time-locked change in cortical state. The neural circuits that transmit behavioral state to sensory cortex to produce this modulation are unknown. In vivo calcium imaging of behaving animals revealed that locomotion activates vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-positive neurons in mouse V1 independent of visual stimulation and largely through nicotinic inputs from basal forebrain. Optogenetic activation of VIP neurons increased V1 visual responses in stationary awake mice, artificially mimicking the effect of locomotion, and photolytic damage of VIP neurons abolished the enhancement of V1 responses by locomotion. These findings establish a cortical circuit for the enhancement of visual response by locomotion and provide a potential common circuit for the modulation of sensory processing by behavioral state.
Short- and long-term effects of cholinergic modulation on gamma oscillations and response synchronization in the visual cortex
Restricted expression of mutant SOD1 in spinal motor neurons and interneurons induces motor neuron pathology
The largest group of superficial neocortical GABAergic interneurons expresses ionotropic serotonin receptors
Inhibition of inhibition in visual cortex: the logic of connections between molecularly distinct interneurons
Behavioral state-dependent modulation of distinct interneuron subtypes and consequences for circuit function
Selective attention. Long-range and local circuits for top-down modulation of visual cortex processing
Cross-Modality Sharpening of Visual Cortical Processing through Layer-1-Mediated Inhibition and Disinhibition
Cholinergic circuit modulation through differential recruitment of neocortical interneuron types during behaviour
Locomotion and Task Demands Differentially Modulate Thalamic Audiovisual Processing during Active Search
Characterizing VIP Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of VIPcre/tdTomato Mice Reveals Layer-Specific Differences
Long-range recruitment of Martinotti cells causes surround suppression and promotes saliency in an attractor network model
Selective disinhibition: A unified neural mechanism for predictive and post hoc attentional selection
Selective Persistence of Sensorimotor Mismatch Signals in Visual Cortex of Behaving Alzheimer's Disease Mice
Parvalbumin-Expressing GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Barrel Cortex Contribute to Gating a Goal-Directed Sensorimotor Transformation
Arousal and locomotion make distinct contributions to cortical activity patterns and visual encoding
Functional response properties of VIP-expressing inhibitory neurons in mouse visual and auditory cortex
Locomotion, Theta Oscillations, and the Speed-Correlated Firing of Hippocampal Neurons Are Controlled by a Medial Septal Glutamatergic Circuit
Cellular mechanisms underlying behavioral state-dependent bidirectional modulation of motor cortex output
Cell is a scientific journal publishing research across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences field. Discover the latest research from Cell here.
Basal Forebrain & Food Avoidance
Neurons in the basal forebrain play specific roles in regulating feeding. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to the basal forebrain and food avoidance.
Basal Forebrain- Circuits
Basal forebrain is a region in the brain important for production of acetylcholine and is the major cholinergic output of the CNS. Discover the latest research on circuits in the basal forebrain here.