A Dormant Microbial Component in the Development of Preeclampsia

Frontiers in Medicine
Douglas B Kell, Louise C Kenny

Abstract

Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex, multisystem disorder that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. Four main classes of dysregulation accompany PE and are widely considered to contribute to its severity. These are abnormal trophoblast invasion of the placenta, anti-angiogenic responses, oxidative stress, and inflammation. What is lacking, however, is an explanation of how these themselves are caused. We here develop the unifying idea, and the considerable evidence for it, that the originating cause of PE (and of the four classes of dysregulation) is, in fact, microbial infection, that most such microbes are dormant and hence resist detection by conventional (replication-dependent) microbiology, and that by occasional resuscitation and growth it is they that are responsible for all the observable sequelae, including the continuing, chronic inflammation. In particular, bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, are well known as highly inflammagenic and stimulate an innate (and possibly trained) immune response that exacerbates the inflammation further. The known need of microbes for free iron can explain the iron dysregulation that accompanies PE. We describe the main ro...Continue Reading

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Dec 17, 2008·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Efrat Mazor-DrayEyal Sheiner
Dec 18, 2008·Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry : International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology·Florian LangMichael Föller
Dec 30, 2008·International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics·Lilyan W Sersam
Dec 31, 2008·Critical Care Medicine·Stefan JochbergerMartin W Dünser
Jan 8, 2009·Immunology·Meredith M Curtis, Sing Sing Way
Feb 3, 2009·Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics·Nathan R Perron, Julia L Brumaghim
Feb 6, 2009·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Hsin-Yun Sun, Nina Singh
Feb 21, 2009·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·Chao-Hsiun TangPao-Hsien Chu
Feb 28, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Anders OmslandRobert A Heinzen
Mar 7, 2009·Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation·E KajantieDavid J P Barker
Mar 17, 2009·Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine·Elizabeth M McClure, Robert L Goldenberg
Mar 17, 2009·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Xiao-ming ZhuYuan-qing Yao
Apr 3, 2009·Nucleic Acids Research·Marie-Line Bortolin-CavailléJérôme Cavaillé
Apr 4, 2009·Physiological Reviews·Richard KvetnanskyMiklos Palkovits
Apr 17, 2009·Cardiovascular Diabetology·Omar S Al-AttasAlison L Harte
Apr 22, 2009·PloS One·Jamie Marie OrengoAna Rodriguez
Apr 22, 2009·Molecular BioSystems·V HowerS V Torti
Apr 25, 2009·Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation·K KristensenH Strevens
Apr 28, 2009·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·H WesthA Hoeft
Apr 28, 2009·Autoimmunity Reviews·Amy D ProalTrevor G Marshall
May 14, 2009·BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth·Esme V MenezesZulfiqar A Bhutta
May 22, 2009·Gastroenterology·Timothy L Cover, Martin J Blaser
May 26, 2009·Seminars in Perinatology·Lelia Duley
Jun 3, 2009·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Ertan AdaliMansur Kamaci
Jun 6, 2009·Journal of the American Geriatrics Society·Santosh B MurthyPaul E Schulz
Jun 17, 2009·The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research·Neerja BhatlaSuresh K Gupta
Jun 23, 2009·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·Corine M KoopmansBen Willem Mol
Jul 8, 2009·International Urology and Nephrology·Sachin S SoniClaudio Ronco
Jul 15, 2009·Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets·Emilia Mira, Santos Mañes
Jul 16, 2009·Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E·Simon GrillOlav Lapaire
Jul 23, 2009·Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis·Hulya AksoyBunyamin Borekci
Jul 25, 2009·Prenatal Diagnosis·Rosario D'AnnaFrancesco Corrado
Jul 31, 2009·Journal of Perinatology : Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association·R HodgesE M Wallace
Aug 4, 2009·Bioinformatics·Seth I Berger, Ravi Iyengar
Aug 25, 2009·American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology·D W ReidI L Lamont
Aug 27, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Michael PlattenLawrence Steinman
Aug 28, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Pierre MiossecVijay K Kuchroo
Aug 29, 2009·Helicobacter·Rinaldo PellicanoAntonio Gasbarrini
Sep 29, 2009·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Abdessalam CherkaouiJacques Schrenzel
Sep 30, 2009·Current Opinion in Gastroenterology·Ajay Goel, Clement Richard Boland
Oct 9, 2009·Nature·Teri A ManolioPeter M Visscher
Oct 31, 2009·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·Galina V MukamolovaMichael R Barer
Nov 3, 2009·International Journal of Experimental Pathology·Lech Romanowicz, Edward Bańkowski
Nov 10, 2009·Autoimmunity Reviews·Alan EbringerClyde Wilson
Nov 17, 2009·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Zhou JianjunZhao Xia
Nov 17, 2009·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Brigitte Santner-NananRalph Nanan
Nov 26, 2009·Obstetrics and Gynecology·John P NewnhamDorota A Doherty
Nov 28, 2009·Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal D'obstétrique Et Gynécologie Du Canada : JOGC·E BujoldYves Giguère
Dec 8, 2009·Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica·Rosario D'AnnaFrancesco Corrado
Dec 17, 2009·Journal of Viral Hepatitis·Michał KuklaW Kryczka
Jan 1, 2007·Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods·Luis G Valerio
Jan 12, 2010·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Fang XiePeter von Dadelszen
Jan 26, 2010·Journal of Clinical Periodontology·Cathy NabetEpipap Group
Feb 4, 2010·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Shali Mazaki-ToviSonia S Hassan
Feb 16, 2010·Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry·Lech Romanowicz, Edward Bańkowski
Feb 23, 2010·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·D NicholsS S Epstein
Mar 3, 2010·Immunological Reviews·Fabio Martinon
Mar 13, 2010·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Yusuf UstUnMehmet Sait TekerekoGlu
Mar 17, 2010·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Matthew G Blango, Matthew A Mulvey
Mar 23, 2010·Cell·Charles A Dinarello
Mar 25, 2010·Pathobiology : Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology·Lech Romanowicz, Edward Bańkowski
Mar 27, 2010·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Susann Müller, Gerhard Nebe-von-Caron
Mar 27, 2010·Chemistry & Biology·Anthony D'OnofrioKim Lewis
Apr 7, 2010·Hypertension in Pregnancy : Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy·John Downing
Apr 9, 2010·Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine : CCLM·Silvia GalbiatiLaura Cremonesi
Apr 17, 2010·The Journal of Infection·Maarten LimperEric C Van Gorp
Apr 20, 2010·The Journal of Pediatrics·Renato S ProcianoyBrazilian Network on Neonatal Research
May 15, 2010·Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences·Akira Endo
May 19, 2010·Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie Et De Rèanimation·A-S Ducloy-Bouthors
May 25, 2010·Surgery·John B SealJohn C Alverdy
May 26, 2010·Immunology and Cell Biology·Shigeru Saito
May 28, 2010·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Deniz Cemgil ArikanFidan Bilge
Jun 10, 2010·Annual Review of Microbiology·Kim Lewis
Jun 11, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J Gregory CaporasoRob Knight
Jun 18, 2010·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Jodie M DoddJohn Kingdom
Jul 3, 2010·Biometals : an International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine·Byron C ChuHans J Vogel
Jul 6, 2010·Lancet·Eric A P SteegersRobert Pijnenborg
Jul 22, 2010·The Journal of Antibiotics·Kim LewisLosee L Ling
Jul 28, 2010·Circulation·Pål R RomundstadLars J Vatten
Aug 24, 2010·Clinical Chemistry·Kiyonori MiuraHideaki Masuzaki
Sep 2, 2010·Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica·Fang XieToxemia Study Group
Sep 8, 2010·Hypertension in Pregnancy : Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy·Fang XieToxaemia group
Sep 10, 2010·Annual Review of Microbiology·David A Hunstad, Sheryl S Justice
Sep 10, 2010·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Hyunkyong AhnJoanne Kwak-Kim
Sep 15, 2010·Hypertension·Louise C KennyScreening for Pregnancy Endpoints Consortium
Sep 28, 2010·Swiss Medical Weekly·Mira Katan, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Oct 5, 2010·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·Luci Maria Santana DusseBashir A Lwaleed
Oct 15, 2010·Critical Care : the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum·Nathan I ShapiroWilliam C Aird
Oct 20, 2010·Acta Clinica Belgica·S LorquetJ M Foidart
Oct 23, 2010·Cellular Microbiology·Manfred NairzGünter Weiss
Oct 29, 2010·Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics·Imran A SiddiquiWaleed Tamimi
Nov 26, 2010·Helicobacter·Natale FiguraAntonio Gasbarrini
Dec 15, 2010·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Beinan LiuDamian C Crowther
Dec 15, 2010·Bioinformatics·Michael E SmootTrey Ideker
Dec 23, 2010·Hypertension in Pregnancy : Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy·Corinne RusterholzSinuhe Hahn
Dec 29, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Keiichi KumasawaMasaru Okabe
Jan 6, 2011·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Donna M Tscherne, Adolfo García-Sastre
Jan 7, 2011·Molecular Medicine·Carla JenneweinKai Zacharowski
Jan 12, 2011·Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis·Etheresia PretoriusPieter F Wessels
Jan 14, 2011·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·Stefan RiedelJonathan M Zenilman
Jan 15, 2011·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Mira AubuchonDanny J Schust
Mar 1, 1995·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·Douglas B KellA Grafen
Jan 21, 2011·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Juan C Vazquez, Edgardo Abalos
Jan 25, 2011·Placenta·Sinuhe HahnO Lapaire
Jan 26, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Giovanni NigroMaurizio M Anceschi
Jan 27, 2011·Seminars in Nephrology·Roxanna A Irani, Yang Xia
Feb 1, 2011·Cellular & Molecular Immunology·Amy D ProalTrevor G Marshall
Feb 4, 2011·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Adele Visser, A van de Vyver
Feb 8, 2011·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Guy E Thwaites, Vanya Gant
Feb 11, 2011·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Gergely ToldiAttila Molvarec
Feb 18, 2011·British Journal of Pharmacology·Anthony R M CoatesYanmin Hu
Feb 22, 2011·International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics·Mahmoud A A El-ShourbagyMaha M Fathy
Feb 24, 2011·Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics·Habibe GencOnur Güralp
Feb 26, 2011·Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology·Lill TrogstadCamilla Stoltenberg
Mar 1, 2011·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Diana M Morales Prieto, Udo R Markert
Mar 4, 2011·Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis·Angela V D'EliaGiuseppe Damante
Mar 5, 2011·Journal of Translational Medicine·Brunna E AlvesErich V De Paula
Mar 8, 2011·Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology·Karin LeslieAris Papageorghiou
Mar 9, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Carlos J VeasClaudio R Aguayo
Mar 12, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Thomas R EverettChristoph C Lees
Mar 17, 2011·Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy·Takashi DeguchiTetsuro Matsumoto
Mar 18, 2011·Current Opinion in Lipidology·De-xiu BuAndrew H Lichtman
Jan 1, 2010·Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases·Nicola SemeraroMario Colucci
Mar 25, 2011·Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology·Paula J Williams, F Broughton Pipkin
Jan 1, 2010·Journal of Asthma and Allergy·Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia Pretorius
Apr 2, 2011·Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology·Shakila ThangaratinamKhalid S Khan
Apr 7, 2011·Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis : an International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis·Etheresia PretoriusPrashilla Soma
Apr 13, 2011·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·S V RamesarJ Moodley
Apr 15, 2011·Journal of Pregnancy·Mitsuko FuruyaIchiro Aoki
Apr 19, 2011·Placenta·F P McCarthyS K Walsh
Apr 20, 2011·Journal of Periodontal Research·G T PolitanoE Couto
May 3, 2011·Pregnancy Hypertension·James M RobertsRobert W Powers
May 21, 2011·Science·I-Hsin LinNicholas L Abbott
May 26, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Shing Yan Robert Lee, Chi Wai Leung
May 31, 2011·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·Leandro De OliveiraAntonio Fernandes Moron
Jun 7, 2011·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·A Cristina Rossi, Patrick M Mullin
Jun 11, 2011·Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology·Carla JenneweinKai Zacharowski
Jun 28, 2011·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Hazel M Davey
Jul 1, 2011·Biomarkers : Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals·Patrick PaulusKai Zacharowski
Jul 1, 2011·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Paulina KuligJoanna Cichy
Jul 8, 2011·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Iain Martin Sheldon, John J Bromfield
Oct 14, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Michele MussapVassilios Fanos
Jul 12, 2011·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Aleksandra S Novakov MikicZoran Stosic
Aug 9, 2011·American Journal of Epidemiology·Anne Lise BrantsaeterHelle Margrete Meltzer
Aug 9, 2011·Vascular Health and Risk Management·Jennifer UzanJean-Marc Ayoubi
Aug 16, 2011·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·Yoshikazu Okamura, Hiroyuki Yokoi
Aug 17, 2011·Archives of Medical Research·Antonio PinedaLeticia Moreno-Fierros
Sep 6, 2011·Clinics in Perinatology·Jamie A BastekMichal A Elovitz
Sep 8, 2011·Expert Review of Clinical Immunology·Shigeru SaitoTomoko Shima
Sep 15, 2011·Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine : CCLM·Murat CanSerefden Acikgoz
Oct 14, 2011·American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI·Victor A RosenbergCatalin S Buhimschi
Oct 18, 2011·Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis : an International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis·Etheresia PretoriusHester M Oberholzer
Nov 2, 2011·Antonie van Leeuwenhoek·Peter Kämpfer
Nov 8, 2011·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Samantha J BentonPeter von Dadelszen
Nov 10, 2011·International Journal of Laboratory Hematology·A C Swanepoel, Etheresia Pretorius
Nov 11, 2011·The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing·Maryanne F LachatTracie L Citron
Nov 19, 2011·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·William J Sullivan, Victoria Jeffers
Nov 19, 2011·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Manel Esteller
Nov 23, 2011·Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology : JCEH·Toshihiro Kaneko, Hideo Wada
Nov 26, 2011·Journal of Perinatal Medicine·Dong-Mei DuanXi Chen
Dec 17, 2011·Journal of Pregnancy·Francisco J ValenzuelaSebastian E Illanes
Dec 30, 2011·Neonatology·Andreas OhlinMaria Björkqvist
Jan 5, 2012·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Simona CardaropoliTullia Todros
Jan 10, 2012·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Or ZukEric S Lander
Jan 10, 2012·Annual Review of Immunology·Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman
Jan 10, 2012·Disease Models & Mechanisms·Kathleen A PenningtonDanny J Schust
Jan 18, 2012·Critical Care : the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum·Katharine XingJeffrey M Singh
Jan 19, 2012·Clinical and Experimental Hypertension : CHE·Edibe KarasuBora Dinc
Jan 25, 2012·Blood Purification·Florian Lang, Syed M Qadri
Jan 28, 2012·Seminars in Perinatology·Labib Ghulmiyyah, Baha Sibai
Jan 28, 2012·Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN·Feng LiNobuyuki Takahashi
Jan 31, 2012·Journal of Theoretical Biology·J ChifmanR Laubenbacher
Feb 9, 2012·Journal of Periodontology·Genivaldo Moura da SilvaSilvia R Jamelli
Feb 11, 2012·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Martin Gengenbacher, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Feb 22, 2012·Trends in Immunology·Stephen J RubinoStephen E Girardin
Feb 23, 2012·Pediatric Reports·Paola SaraccoFabio Timeus
Mar 1, 2012·Current Pharmaceutical Design·Alexios S AntonopoulosCharalambos Antoniades
Mar 1, 2012·Journal of Reproductive Immunology·Dorota Darmochwal-KolarzJan Oleszczuk
Mar 13, 2012·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Christoph DehioRalf Bartenschlager
Mar 13, 2012·Drug Discovery Today·Lourdes Cucurull-SanchezSterghios Athanasios Moschos
Mar 31, 2012·Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis·Lara Carvalho GodoiLuci Maria Sant'Ana Dusse
Apr 7, 2012·Drugs·Edouard LecarpentierVassilis Tsatsaris
Apr 13, 2012·The Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians·Ray O Bahado-SinghKypros H Nicolaides
Apr 17, 2012·Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology·Akila SubramaniamAlan T Tita
Apr 19, 2012·Journal of Periodontology·Kim A BoggessCarol Lorenz
Apr 20, 2012·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Subhankar ChakrabortySurinder K Batra
May 4, 2012·Molecular Medicine Reports·Tomohiro IshimaruAkiyoshi Fukamizu
May 10, 2012·Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology·Varaprasad KollaSinuhe Hahn
Jun 1, 2010·North American Journal of Medical Sciences·Paul Erhunmwunse ImadeEndurance Ophori
May 24, 2012·The New England Journal of Medicine·V Marco RanieriPROWESS-SHOCK Study Group