SARS-CoV-2, primarily considered a respiratory virus, is increasingly recognized as having gastrointestinal aspects based on its presence in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces. SARS-CoV-2 uses as a receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), a critical member of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) involved in the regulation of blood pressure and fluid system. In addition to the systemic endocrine functions, RAAS components are also involved in intracrine and organ-specific local functions. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) is a key component of RAAS and a receptor for SARS-CoV-2. It is expressed in many tissues with gastrointestinal (GI) tract ACE-2 levels far exceeding those in the respiratory tract. SARS-CoV-2 binding to its receptor results in a deficiency of ACE-2 activity in endocrine, intracrine, and local lung and GI tract ACE-2. The local ACE-2 has different organ-specific functions, including hypertension-independent activities; dysregulations of these functions may contribute to multiorgan COVID-19 pathology, its severity, long-term effects, and mortality. We review supporting evidence from this standpoint. Notably, COVID-19 comorbidities involving hypertension, obesity, heart diseas...Continue Reading
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Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms.
Cardiovascular Diseases: Risk Factors
Cardiovascular disease is a significant health concern. Risk factors include hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Women who are postmenopausal are at an increased risk of heart disease. Here is the latest research for risk factors of cardiovascular disease.