Apr 19, 2013

A dynamic deep sleep stage in Drosophila

The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bart van AlphenBruno van Swinderen

Abstract

How might one determine whether simple animals such as flies sleep in stages? Sleep in mammals is a dynamic process involving different stages of sleep intensity, and these are typically associated with measurable changes in brain activity (Blake and Gerard, 1937; Rechtschaffen and Kales, 1968; Webb and Agnew, 1971). Evidence for different sleep stages in invertebrates remains elusive, even though it has been well established that many invertebrate species require sleep (Campbell and Tobler, 1984; Hendricks et al., 2000; Shaw et al., 2000; Sauer et al., 2003). Here we used electrophysiology and arousal-testing paradigms to show that the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, transitions between deeper and lighter sleep within extended bouts of inactivity, with deeper sleep intensities after ∼15 and ∼30 min of inactivity. As in mammals, the timing and intensity of these dynamic sleep processes in flies is homeostatically regulated and modulated by behavioral experience. Two molecules linked to synaptic plasticity regulate the intensity of the first deep sleep stage. Optogenetic upregulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate during the day increases sleep intensity at night, whereas loss of function of a molecule involved in synapti...Continue Reading

  • References37
  • Citations53

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Insufficient Sleep Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome
FMR1 protein, Drosophila
Drosophila melanogaster Proteins
ELAV protein, Drosophila
Brain
Cyclic AMP
Drosophila
Physical Stimulation
Sleep Stages

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