A mechanistic insight into the biological activities of urolithins as gut microbial metabolites of ellagitannins.

Phytotherapy Research : PTR
Seyyed Hossein HasheminezhadMilad Iranshahy

Abstract

Urolithins are the gut metabolites produced from ellagitannin-rich foods such as pomegranates, tea, walnuts, as well as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and cloudberries. Urolithins are of growing interest due to their various biological activities including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory activity, anticancer properties, antidiabetic activity, and antiaging properties. Several studies mostly based on in vitro and in vivo experiments have investigated the potential mechanisms of urolithins which support the beneficial effects of urolithins in the treatment of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and various cancers. It is now obvious that urolithins can involve several cellular mechanisms including inhibition of MDM2-p53 interaction, modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity. Antiaging activity is the most appealing and probably the most important property of urolithin A that has been investigated in depth in recent studies, owing to its unique effects on activation of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. A recent clinical ...Continue Reading

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