Apr 16, 2020

RubyACRs, non-algal anion channelrhodopsins with highly red-shifted absorption

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Elena G GovorunovaJohn L Spudich

Abstract

Channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels widely used to control neuronal firing with light (optogenetics). We report two previously unknown families of anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs), one from the heterotrophic protists labyrinthulomycetes and the other from haptophyte algae. Four closely related labyrinthulomycete ACRs, named RubyACRs here, exhibit a unique retinal binding pocket that creates spectral sensitivities with maxima at 590-610 nm, the most red-shifted channelrhodopsins known, long-sought for optogenetics, and more broadly the most red-shifted microbial rhodopsins so far reported. We identified three spectral tuning residues critical for the red-shifted absorption. Photocurrents recorded from the RubyACR from Aurantiochytrium limacinum (designated AlACR1) under single-turnover excitation exhibited biphasic decay, the rate of which was only weakly voltage-dependent, in contrast to that in previously characterized cryptophyte ACRs, indicating differences in channel gating mechanisms between the two ACR families. Moreover, in A. limacinum we identified three ACRs with absorption maxima at 485, 545, and 590 nm, indicating color-sensitive photosensing with blue, green and red spectral variation of ACRs within indivi...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Immune Response
Transcription Cofactor Activity
Laboratory Procedures
Virus
Genes
Genetic Analysis
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (Lab Test)
Vaccines
Transcription, Genetic

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