A method for growing a biofilm under low shear at the air-liquid interface using the drip flow biofilm reactor.

Nature Protocols
Darla M GoeresPhilip S Stewart


This protocol describes how to grow a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm under low fluid shear close to the air-liquid interface using the drip flow reactor (DFR). The DFR can model environments such as food-processing conveyor belts, catheters, lungs with cystic fibrosis and the oral cavity. The biofilm is established by operating the reactor in batch mode for 6 h. A mature biofilm forms as the reactor operates for an additional 48 h with a continuous flow of nutrients. During continuous flow, the biofilm experiences a low shear as the media drips onto a surface set at a 10 degrees angle. At the end of 54 h, biofilm accumulation is quantified by removing coupons from the reactor channels, rinsing the coupons to remove planktonic cells, scraping the biofilm from the coupon surface, disaggregating the clumps, then diluting and plating for viable cell enumeration. The entire procedure takes 13 h of active time that is distributed over 5 d.


Jan 1, 1978·Scientific American·J W CostertonK J Cheng
Oct 6, 1998·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·K D XuG A McFeters
Oct 3, 1999·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·J G ElkinsT R McDermott
Apr 4, 2000·Microbiology·K D XuP S Stewart
Feb 13, 2001·Journal of Microbiological Methods·B HerigstadJ Heersink
Sep 15, 2001·Journal of Applied Microbiology·P S StewartW M Rees
Mar 1, 2002·Biotechnology and Bioengineering·Maria Olivia PereiraLuis F Melo
Apr 5, 2002·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Rodney M Donlan, J William Costerton
Mar 11, 2005·Microbiology·Darla M GoeresRodney M Donlan
Mar 30, 2006·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·John J Curtin, Rodney M Donlan

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Jan 11, 2012·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Gabriel J SwensonRichard A Long
Oct 26, 2010·Animal Health Research Reviews·Mario JacquesYannick D N Tremblay
Oct 2, 2013·Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery·Thomas BjarnsholtNiels Høiby
Jan 6, 2011·Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE·Kelly SchwartzBlaise R Boles
Oct 30, 2010·Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films : an Official Journal of the American Vacuum Society·Slobodan MilasinovicLuke Hanley
Sep 8, 2015·Pharmaceuticals·Philip S Stewart
Sep 8, 2010·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Tom Coenye, Hans J Nelis
Dec 27, 2015·Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications·M Pérez-DíazF Martinez-Gutierrez
Jul 15, 2015·Biotechnology and Bioengineering·Karin RasmussenRobert S Jones
Nov 26, 2015·Future Microbiology·Rebecca A Gabrilska, Kendra P Rumbaugh
Jun 10, 2011·Biotechnology and Bioengineering·Wei ZhangAaron I Packman
Sep 22, 2011·Microscopy Research and Technique·F Gómez-AguadoJ Prieto
Sep 17, 2013·Biotechnology and Bioengineering·Jisun L SongAaron I Packman
Mar 24, 2016·Trends in Microbiology·Henriette L RøderMette Burmølle
Dec 11, 2013·Periodontology 2000·Robert J Palmer
Nov 28, 2014·Veterinary Research·Bernardo Bello-OrtíMario Jacques
Sep 8, 2015·Journal of Molecular Biology·Aled E L RobertsStephen P Diggle
Aug 21, 2010·Journal of Medical Microbiology·Ruth G LedderAndrew J McBain
Mar 19, 2011·Journal of Medical Microbiology·Julie A ShapiroNeal R Chamberlain
Jul 28, 2015·International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents·Kelly R KirkerGarth A James
Dec 30, 2014·Biotechnology and Bioengineering·Ellen G LauchnorBrian D Wood
Jul 23, 2013·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Tony VelkovJian Li
Feb 18, 2015·Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications·Jorge Luis Velázquez-VelázquezFidel Martinez-Gutierrez
Jan 15, 2014·Cell Reports·Jon PentermanPradeep K Singh
Jul 6, 2013·Trends in Microbiology·Thomas BjarnsholtNiels Høiby
May 13, 2014·Journal of Microbiological Methods·A E ParkerA Omar
Sep 10, 2011·Archives of Oral Biology·Ruth G Ledder, Andrew J McBain
Jan 18, 2014·Pathogens and Disease·Eva Van MeervenneNico Boon
Nov 22, 2016·Critical Reviews in Microbiology·Joana AzeredoClaus Sternberg
Apr 14, 2017·APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, Et Immunologica Scandinavica·Peter Ø JensenMichael Kühl
Jun 16, 2017·Environmental Microbiology·Wenzheng LiuSøren J Sørensen
Nov 8, 2017·Animal Health Research Reviews·Skander HathroubiMario Jacques
Oct 17, 2017·Molecular Microbiology·Yun Heacock-KangTung T Hoang
Sep 29, 2017·Critical Reviews in Biotechnology·Inês B GomesManuel Simões
Jul 18, 2018·Critical Reviews in Microbiology·Cristina CattòFrancesca Cappitelli

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Biofilm & Infectious Disease

Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor for a wide range of microorganisms that cause chronic infections.Here is the latest research on biofilm and infectious diseases.

Related Papers

Journal of Microbiological Methods
Kelli Buckingham-MeyerMartin A Hamilton
Canadian Journal of Microbiology
W F McCoyJohn W Costerton
© 2022 Meta ULC. All rights reserved