PMID: 1120Oct 1, 1975

A model for the origin of stable protocells in a primitive alkaline ocean

Bio Systems
W D Snyder, S W Fox


When a mixture of the eighteen proteinous amino acids are suitably heated in the dry state with seawater salts, a copolyamino acid results. One fraction of this polymer is found, through isoelectric focusing, to consist of a mixture of acidic and basic proteinoids, each of sharply limited heterogeneity. When one fraction of the seawater proteinoid is dissolved in hot water, and the solution is cooled, proteinoid microspheres result. These have properties in common with simpler types, but also stable at pH values to 9, in common with microspheres prepared by mixing acidic and basic proteinoids. These processes thus constitute a simple model for the origin of a protocell stable in a primitive alkaline ocean.


Jan 1, 1975·Origins of Life·D L Rohlfing
Jun 14, 1972·Journal of Molecular Biology·W D FullerLeslie Orgel
Apr 15, 1974·Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry·S W Fox
Aug 1, 1973·Die Naturwissenschaften·S W Fox
Jul 1, 1971·Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry·W W Fish
May 1, 1971·Currents in Modern Biology·L L HsuS W Fox
Jun 26, 1968·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·S W Fox, T V Waehneldt
Sep 1, 1963·Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics·S W FoxC R WINDSOR


Jul 1, 1977·Die Naturwissenschaften·S W Fox
Dec 1, 1982·Die Naturwissenschaften·A T PrzybylskiS W Fox
Dec 1, 1980·Die Naturwissenschaften·S W Fox
Aug 1, 1980·Die Naturwissenschaften·S W Fox
Dec 1, 1981·Origins of Life·A Ferracin
May 1, 1980·Journal of Molecular Evolution·T Nakashima, S W Fox
Jan 1, 1982·Journal of Molecular Evolution·J RishponJ G Lawless
Jan 1, 1982·Journal of Molecular Evolution·N Lahav, S Chang
Dec 1, 1976·Bio Systems·D L Rohlfing, W W McAlhaney
Jun 1, 1977·Bio Systems·S Brooke, S W Fox
Jan 1, 1983·Bio Systems·E KokufutaK Harada
Jan 1, 1985·Bio Systems·R M SyrenS W Fox
Jul 6, 2006·Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere : the Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life·Fernando de Souza-BarrosA Vieyra
Feb 24, 2007·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP·Fernando de Souza-Barros, A Vieyra
Oct 2, 2012·Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part a·Stephen Quirk
Mar 13, 2009·Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part a·Stephen Quirk
Nov 5, 2008·Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part a·Stephen Quirk
Oct 12, 2000·Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciências·M Pontes-BuarqueA Vieyra
Sep 6, 2005·Bioelectromagnetics·Andreas Christ, Niels Kuster
Aug 1, 1994·Risk Analysis : an Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis·B L FinleyD A Mayhall
Oct 27, 1976·Journal of Molecular Evolution·S W Fox

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Biological Evolution
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