A multicentre study of antifungal susceptibility patterns among 350 Candida auris isolates (2009-17) in India: role of the ERG11 and FKS1 genes in azole and echinocandin resistance

The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Anuradha ChowdharyJacques F Meis

Abstract

Candida auris has emerged globally as an MDR nosocomial pathogen in ICU patients. We studied the antifungal susceptibility of C. auris isolates (n = 350) from 10 hospitals in India collected over a period of 8 years. To investigate azole resistance, ERG11 gene sequencing and expression profiling was conducted. In addition, echinocandin resistance linked to mutations in the C. auris FKS1 gene was analysed. CLSI antifungal susceptibility testing of six azoles, amphotericin B, three echinocandins, terbinafine, 5-flucytosine and nystatin was conducted. Screening for amino acid substitutions in ERG11 and FKS1 was performed. Overall, 90% of C. auris were fluconazole resistant (MICs 32 to ≥64 mg/L) and 2% and 8% were resistant to echinocandins (≥8 mg/L) and amphotericin B (≥2 mg/L), respectively. ERG11 sequences of C. auris exhibited amino acid substitutions Y132 and K143 in 77% (n = 34/44) of strains that were fluconazole resistant whereas WT genotypes, i.e. without substitutions at these positions, were observed in isolates with low fluconazole MICs (1-2 mg/L) suggesting that these substitutions confer a phenotype of resistance to fluconazole similar to that described for Candida albicans. No significant expression of ERG11 was obse...Continue Reading

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