Jan 1, 1993

A prey-type dependent hypoglossal feedback system in the frog Rana pipiens

Brain, Behavior and Evolution
C W Anderson, Kiisa C Nishikawa


Nerve transection experiments combined with high-speed videography and electromyography were used to characterize a prey-type dependent hypoglossal feedback system which coordinates mouth opening and tongue protraction in the common leopard frog, Rana pipiens. When feeding on small prey, sensory feedback from the tongue through the hypoglossal nerve is necessary to trigger mouth opening. If sensory feedback is prevented from reaching the brain by transection of the hypoglossal nerve, then the mouth fails to open although the feeding behavior appears otherwise normal. However, when feeding on large prey, the mouth opens normally even after the hypoglossal nerve has been transected. Thus, peripheral feedback is not necessary to trigger mouth opening when feeding on large prey, and presumably a central coordination mechanism is used. In Rana pipiens, the evolution of a new tongue morphology and a new motor pattern for feeding on small prey has been accompanied by the evolution of a novel, peripheral mechanism for coordinating tongue protraction and mouth opening. However, the primitive motor pattern for feeding on large prey and the primitive coordinating mechanism have been retained. These results imply that the neural circuits p...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Rana pipiens
Surface Electromyography
Biochemical Pathway
Science of Morphology
Hypoglossal Nerve Structure
Entire Central Nervous System
Feedback - System Communication
Entire Hypoglossal Nerve

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