A primer for fetal cardiac imaging: a stepwise approach for 2-dimensional imaging
Sima Naderi, John P McGahan
Detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) remains problematic, even with advances in imaging. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, have been helpful in better understanding certain abnormalities, such as the fetal central nervous system. However, because of cardiac motion, screening and detection of CHD are best performed by sonography. Although newer technical advances in sonography, including 3-dimensional (3-D) dynamic multiplanar imaging and Doppler techniques, are extremely helpful in better delineating CHD, the mainstay of detection of CHD remains 2-D real-time imaging. Understanding 2-D imaging of the heart, using multiple views, is necessary to perform any type of multiplanar imaging as both require basic understanding of the same basic views. Although it is beyond the scope of this article to review all facets of fetal cardiac imaging, we will present a stepwise approach using 2-D imaging in the detection of CHD.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.