Apr 29, 2020

Biomarkers to distinguish bacterial from viral pediatric clinical pneumonia in a malaria endemic setting

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
M. A. GilletteDyann Wirth


BACKGROUND: Differentiating the etiology of acute febrile respiratory illness in children is a challenge in low-income, malaria-endemic settings because the main pathogens responsible (viruses, bacteria, and malaria parasites) overlap in clinical presentation and frequently occur together as mixed infections. The critical task is to rapidly identify bacterial pneumonia to enable appropriate antibiotic treatment, ideally at point of care. Current diagnostic tests are insufficient and there is a need for the discovery and development of new tools. Here we report the identification of a unique biomarker signature that can be identified in blood samples. METHODS: Blood samples from 195 pediatric Mozambican patients with clinical pneumonia were analyzed with an aptamer-based high dynamic range assay to quantify ~1200 proteins. For discovery of new biomarkers, we identified a training set of patient samples in which the underlying etiology of the pneumonia was established as bacterial, viral or malaria. Proteins whose abundances varied significantly between patients with verified etiologies (FDR<0.01) formed the basis for predictive diagnostic models that were created using machine learning techniques (Random Forest, Elastic Net). Th...Continue Reading

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