PMID: 16468569Feb 14, 2006Paper

A real-time automated system for the recognition of human facial expressions

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society
Keith Anderson, Peter W McOwan

Abstract

A fully automated, multistage system for real-time recognition of facial expression is presented. The system uses facial motion to characterize monochrome frontal views of facial expressions and is able to operate effectively in cluttered and dynamic scenes, recognizing the six emotions universally associated with unique facial expressions, namely happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear, and anger. Faces are located using a spatial ratio template tracker algorithm. Optical flow of the face is subsequently determined using a real-time implementation of a robust gradient model. The expression recognition system then averages facial velocity information over identified regions of the face and cancels out rigid head motion by taking ratios of this averaged motion. The motion signatures produced are then classified using Support Vector Machines as either nonexpressive or as one of the six basic emotions. The completed system is demonstrated in two simple affective computing applications that respond in real-time to the facial expressions of the user, thereby providing the potential for improvements in the interaction between a computer user and technology.

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Citations

Sep 25, 2008·Biological cybernetics·Isabella CattinelliN Alberto Borghese
Mar 25, 2008·Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR·Bruce Reiner
Sep 16, 2014·IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics·Yanhui XiaoXuelong Li
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Nov 26, 2008·IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence·Zhihong ZengThomas S Huang
Nov 4, 2009·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society·Mingli SongMengchu Zhou
May 12, 2012·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society·U TariqTony X Han
Sep 20, 2011·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society·Michel F Valstar, Maja Pantic
Apr 21, 2010·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society·Ruicong ZhiW Bastiaan Kleijn
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Jul 29, 2015·IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics·Aravinda S RaoMarimuthu Palaniswami
Mar 10, 2017·IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering·Songpo LiJeremy D Webb
Jan 4, 2018·BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making·Jing ChenZhijie Ding
Jul 18, 2017·Brain Informatics·Mehmet Siraç Özerdem, Hasan Polat
Oct 6, 2021·Brain Informatics·Pragati PatelRamesh Naidu Annavarapu

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