A Representation of Effort in Decision-Making and Motor Control.

Current Biology : CB
Reza ShadmehrAlaa A Ahmed


Given two rewarding stimuli, animals tend to choose the more rewarding (or less effortful) option. However, they also move faster toward that stimulus [1-5]. This suggests that reward and effort not only affect decision-making, they also influence motor control [6, 7]. How does the brain compute the effort requirements of a task? Here, we considered data acquired during walking, reaching, flying, or isometric force production. In analyzing the decision-making and motor-control behaviors of various animals, we considered the possibility that the brain may estimate effort objectively, via the metabolic energy consumed to produce the action. We measured the energetic cost of reaching and found that, like walking, it was convex in time, with a global minimum, implying that there existed a movement speed that minimized effort. However, reward made it worthwhile to be energetically inefficient. Using a framework in which utility of an action depended on reward and energetic cost, both discounted in time, we found that it was possible to account for a body of data in which animals were free to choose how to move (reach slow or fast), as well as what to do (walk or fly, produce force F1 or F2). We suggest that some forms of decision-ma...Continue Reading


Apr 10, 1999·Nature Neuroscience·R KawagoeO Hikosaka
Feb 7, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·L M BautistaA Kacelnik
Oct 31, 2002·Nature Neuroscience·Emanuel Todorov, Michael I Jordan
Nov 26, 2002·Behavioural Brain Research·Mercè CorreaJohn D Salamone
Jan 1, 1958·Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie, einschliesslich Arbeitsphysiologie·H J RALSTON
Sep 24, 2004·PLoS Biology·Konrad P KordingDaniel M Wolpert
Jan 15, 2005·European Journal of Applied Physiology·G J BastienN C Heglund
Sep 5, 2006·Neural Networks : the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society·Mark E WaltonM F S Rushworth
Oct 13, 2006·Psychopharmacology·Yael NivPeter Dayan
Jul 13, 2007·Journal of Neurophysiology·Jacob A GobleNatalia Dounskaia
Mar 14, 2008·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Jun IzawaReza Shadmehr
Aug 1, 2008·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Shunsuke Kobayashi, Wolfram Schultz
Apr 11, 2009·PLoS Computational Biology·Ian O'SullivanJörn Diedrichsen
Jun 16, 2009·Experimental Brain Research·Minnan Xu-WilsonReza Shadmehr
Aug 6, 2010·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Reza ShadmehrTing-Yu Shih
Oct 5, 2010·Journal of Neurophysiology·Dinant A KistemakerPaul L Gribble
Oct 22, 2010·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Charlotte PrévostJean-Claude Dreher
Apr 1, 2011·Journal of Neurophysiology·Ignasi CosPaul Cisek
Feb 11, 2012·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Helen J HuangAlaa A Ahmed
Aug 24, 2012·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Adrian M HaithReza Shadmehr
Oct 6, 2012·Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation·Wanyue Wang, Natalia Dounskaia
Oct 12, 2012·PLoS Computational Biology·Lionel Rigoux, Emmanuel Guigon
May 10, 2013·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Benjamin Pasquereau, Robert S Turner
Jul 26, 2013·Frontiers in Neural Circuits·Eun Jung Hwang
Aug 7, 2013·Psychonomic Bulletin & Review·Oliver Herbort, David A Rosenbaum
Jan 24, 2014·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Jennie E S ChoiReza Shadmehr
Jan 31, 2014·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Yousef Salimpour, Reza Shadmehr
Oct 1, 2014·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Paul Cisek, Alexandre Pastor-Bernier
Dec 5, 2014·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·David ThuraPaul Cisek
Sep 15, 2015·Current Biology : CB·Jessica C SelingerJ Maxwell Donelan
Nov 21, 2015·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Thomas R ReppertReza Shadmehr
Apr 2, 2016·PLoS Computational Biology·Ali FarshchiansadeghFerdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi


Aug 10, 2016·Current Biology : CB·Herman Pontzer
Mar 2, 2012·Journal of Biomechanics·Ting-Yun WangYi-Chung Pai
Dec 18, 2013·Neuropsychologia·Valérie GaveauClaude Prablanc
Jun 24, 2006·Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology·Riccardo MazzocchioLeonardo G Cohen
Aug 4, 2012·Journal of Biomechanics·Sebastian BohmAdamantios Arampatzis
Oct 26, 2016·Current Biology : CB·J Maxwell Donelan
Nov 3, 2016·ELife·Jeremie GaveauCharalambos Papaxanthis
Mar 23, 2018·Neural Computation·Yin Zhang, Steve M Chase
Jan 6, 2017·Journal of Neurophysiology·Reza Shadmehr
Mar 15, 2018·Journal of Neurophysiology·Erik M SummersideAlaa A Ahmed
Jul 7, 2018·PLoS Computational Biology·Xiuli ChenJoseph M Galea
May 2, 2018·Annual Review of Neuroscience·Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
May 17, 2018·Journal of Neurophysiology·Thomas R ReppertReza Shadmehr
Jul 19, 2018·Journal of Neurophysiology·Kevin A MazurekM Hongchul Sohn
Oct 13, 2018·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·Nathan J WispinskiCraig S Chapman
Aug 19, 2017·PLoS Biology·Ignasi Cos
Jun 22, 2018·Journal of the Royal Society, Interface·Erik M SummersideAlaa A Ahmed
Mar 3, 2017·Journal of Neurophysiology·Romy S BakkerW Pieter Medendorp
Nov 11, 2019·The Journal of Physiological Sciences : JPS·Fumika AkizawaMunetaka Shidara
Dec 18, 2019·The European Journal of Neuroscience·Marcus de Lemos FonsecaJose Garcia Vivas Miranda
Feb 13, 2020·Journal of Neurophysiology·Julien MichalskiPaul Cisek
Oct 16, 2019·PloS One·Megan K O'Brien, Alaa A Ahmed
Jul 31, 2020·Journal of Neurophysiology·Dimitrios J Palidis, Paul L Gribble
Jul 9, 2020·Journal of Neurophysiology·Amélie J ReynaudDavid Thura
Jul 12, 2017·Scientific Reports·Masahiro HoriuchiHerman Pontzer
Jul 15, 2018·Scientific Reports·Bastien BerretThomas Deroche
Sep 5, 2018·Nature Communications·Brian M DeklevaLee E Miller
Jun 10, 2020·Brain Sciences·Simone V GillDaniel Fulford
May 11, 2017·Annual Review of Neuroscience·Ashesh K DhawaleBence P Ölveczky
Nov 10, 2017·Journal of Neurophysiology·David Córdova BulensPhilippe Lefèvre
May 30, 2019·Journal of Neurophysiology·F Javier Domínguez-Zamora, Daniel S Marigold
Oct 17, 2018·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Tehrim YoonReza Shadmehr
Mar 19, 2019·Frontiers in Psychology·Katinka van der KooijKrista E Overvliet
Sep 7, 2019·The Journal of Experimental Biology·Jessica C SelingerJ Maxwell Donelan
Mar 27, 2019·The Journal of Experimental Biology·Koren GastRaziel Riemer
Aug 14, 2020·Nature Communications·Patrick S HoganVikram S Chib
Jul 25, 2018·Psychonomic Bulletin & Review·Kenneth F ValyearNeil M Dundon
Mar 8, 2018·PloS One·Katinka van der KooijJoeren B J Smeets
May 21, 2019·Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems·Daniel McNamee, Daniel M Wolpert
Dec 29, 2019·Scientific Reports·Luka Peternel, Jan Babič
Aug 10, 2018·Nature Reviews. Neuroscience·Jason P GallivanJ Randall Flanagan
Sep 26, 2020·Annual Review of Psychology·Hyosub E KimRichard B Ivry
Nov 5, 2020·Journal of Neurophysiology·Jing WangSang Wook Lee

Related Concepts

Decision Making, Shared
Decision Making
Motor protein

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Related Papers

The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Reza ShadmehrTing-Yu Shih
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Thomas R ReppertReza Shadmehr
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved