A review of radiation countermeasures focusing on injury-specific medicinals and regulatory approval status: part I. Radiation sub-syndromes, animal models and FDA-approved countermeasures

International Journal of Radiation Biology
Vijay K Singh, Thomas M Seed


The increasing global risk of nuclear and radiological accidents or attacks has driven renewed research interest in developing medical countermeasures to potentially injurious exposures to acute irradiation. Clinical symptoms and signs of a developing acute radiation injury, i.e. the acute radiation syndrome, are grouped into three sub-syndromes named after the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and neurovascular systems. The availability of safe and effective countermeasures against the above threats currently represents a significant unmet medical need. This is the first article within a three-part series covering the nature of the radiation sub-syndromes, various animal models for radiation countermeasure development, and the agents currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for countering the medical consequences of several of these prominent radiation exposure-associated syndromes. From the U.S. and global perspectives, biomedical research concerning medical countermeasure development is quite robust, largely due to increased government funding following the 9/11 incidence and subsequent rise of terrorist-associated threats. A wide spectrum of radiation cou...Continue Reading


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