A review of the sonographic assessment of tumor metastases in liver and superficial lymph nodes
Diagnostic imaging techniques are an important part of the diagnostic workup and staging of cancer patients. Ultrasound is of particular interest in this respect. In so far as tumor metastases are concerned, ultrasonography of regional lymph nodes and of the liver can provide valuable information. In humans many criteria, some of them objective, have been evaluated as indicators of malignancy. The most diagnostically helpful of these include the short/long axis ratio of the lymph node, the pattern of distribution of the blood vessels within the lymph node, and to some extent the calculated values for resistive and pulsatility indices. Putative objective criteria to improve the specificity of ultrasound for metastases detection in the liver have also been evaluated. These include perfusion indices, primarily using analysis of Doppler frequencies (Doppler perfusion index) and hepatic venography using an ultrasound contrast agent. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a new and promising area to help the initial diagnosis and characterization of malignancy, particularly for focal lesions in the liver. This review discusses the use of ultrasound for detection of metastases and presents material from four veterinary cases.
Demonstration of growing casts of hepatocellular carcinoma in the portal vein by celiac angiography: The thread and streaks sign
Relationship of splanchnic blood flow and portal venous resistance to elevated portal pressure in the dog
Tumor angiogenesis: a new significant and independent prognostic indicator in early-stage breast carcinoma
Small hepatocellular carcinoma: differentiation from adenomatous hyperplastic nodule with color Doppler flow imaging
Flow measurement using duplex Doppler ultrasound: haemodynamic changes in patients with colorectal liver metastases
Differentiation of benign from malignant superficial lymphadenopathy: the role of high-resolution US
The diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas: efficacy of various imaging procedures in 100 patients
Detection of hepatic masses in patients with carcinoma: comparative sensitivities of sonography, CT, and MR imaging
Changes in hepatic haemodynamics and hepatic perfusion index during the growth and development of hypovascular HSN sarcoma in rats
Change in ovarian arterial compliance during the human menstrual cycle assessed by Doppler ultrasound
The vascularization of liver metastases. Histological investigation of gelatine-injected liver specimens with special regard to the vascularization of micrometastases
Ultrasonographic evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer with special reference to the relationship between the short to long axis ratio (S/L) and the cancer content
Quantitative measurement of abdominal arterial blood flow using image-directed Doppler ultrasonography: superior mesenteric, splenic, and common hepatic arterial blood flow in normal adults
Small hepatocellular carcinoma: detection with sonography, computed tomography (CT), angiography and Lipiodol-CT
Ultrasonic Doppler studies of hepatocellular carcinoma and comparison with other hepatic focal lesions
Clinical application of an ultrasonic duplex system in the quantitative measurement of portal blood flow
Comparison of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic findings with histologic features of benign and malignant superficial lymph nodes in dogs
Sonographic characteristics of presumptively normal main axillary and superficial cervical lymph nodes in dogs
Ultrasonography and noncontrast computed tomography of medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes in healthy cats
Evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) under general anesthesia
COMBINATION OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDIAL RETROPHARYNGEAL LYMPH NODES AND NASAL PASSAGES AIDS DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN RHINITIS AND NEOPLASIA IN CATS
Sonographically detectable changes in abdominal lymph nodes in dogs with malignant lymphoma. Evaluation with special consideration of the Solbiati-Index
Characterization of normal and abnormal canine superficial lymph nodes using gray-scale B-mode, color flow mapping, power, and spectral Doppler ultrasonography: a multivariate study
Survey of the use of radiography vs. ultrasonography in the investigation of gastrointestinal foreign bodies in small animals
Association between malignancy and sonographic heterogeneity in canine and feline abdominal lymph nodes
Ultrasonographic appearance of jejunal lymph nodes in dogs without clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease
Lack of associations between ultrasonographic appearance of parenchymal lesions of the canine liver and histological diagnosis
Comparison between ultrasonographic findings of benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours using B-mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler
Correlation of cytologic and histopathologic findings with perinodal echogenicity of abdominal lymph nodes in dogs and cats
Tumor characterization by ultrasound-release of multiple protein and microRNA biomarkers, preclinical and clinical evidence
Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in normal canine liver. Evaluation of imaging and safety parameters
Comparisons between elastographic stiffness scores for benign versus malignant lymph nodes in dogs and cats
Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of the spleen and abdominal lymph nodes in healthy domestic ferrets
Feline abdominal ultrasonography: What's normal? What's abnormal? Abdominal lymph nodes, peritoneal cavity and aorta.
Shear wave velocity measurements obtained in different regions are repeatable for presumed normal canine lymph nodes: A pilot study.
Inter- and intraobserver agreement for CT measurement of mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes is excellent in dogs with histologically confirmed oral melanoma.
Imaging techniques, including CT and MR, have become essential to tumor detection, diagnosis, and monitoring. Here is the latest research on cancer imaging.