PMID: 853971Jan 1, 1977

A simple universal mechanism of use and conservation of energy: its application to movements of ions and other materials across cell, mitochondrial and other membranes and to oxidative phosphorylation

Medical Hypotheses
A EvanP M Wiggins


A single simple mechanism by which all cells might both use energy to drive active transport to all solutes and also conserve energy in the form of adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) is descirbed. The basic assumption is that injection of energy results in a conformational change of the membrane which both generates transient highly-ordered water structures on its inside surface and changes membrane permeability. Ordered water is propagated through the cell by means of cooperative interactions with proteins, so that during the ordered period intracellular water is incompatible with small cations which require strong primary hydration, but has enhanced affinity for water-structure-breaking solutes. In animal cells cytoplasmic water is ordered by the activity of the plasma-membrane-bound transport ATPases. In mitochondria and bacteria the state of ordered water is identified with the energised state, which can be generated either by passage of electrons down the electron chain, or by ATPase activity. The mechanism is shown to be consistent with the observed transport activities of mitochondria and bacteria, and also provides a simple direct explanation of oxidative phosphorylation.


Oct 1, 1982·Journal of Learning Disabilities·A J Harris


Mar 25, 1976·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·S F Hannan, P M Wiggins
Jul 1, 1975·Journal of Theoretical Biology·P M Wiggins
Mar 1, 1975·Medical Hypotheses·P M Wiggins
Jan 1, 1975·Annual Review of Biochemistry·R D Simoni, P W Postma
Nov 1, 1975·Medical Hypotheses·P M Wiggins
Dec 1, 1968·The Journal of Physiology·A F Lant, R Whittam
Apr 1, 1969·The Journal of Physiology·H J Schatzmann, F F Vincenzi
Jan 1, 1969·Annual Review of Biochemistry·H A Lardy, S M Ferguson
Feb 18, 1974·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·F M Harold
Oct 31, 1974·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·L Kovác
Dec 30, 1974·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·V D Gooch, L Packer
Jul 1, 1971·Journal of Theoretical Biology·P M Wiggins
Feb 18, 1974·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·F J LombardiH R Kaback
Jun 1, 1973·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·H HirataF M Harold
Dec 30, 1974·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·A J Meijer, K Van Dam
Nov 1, 1972·Journal of Theoretical Biology·P M Wiggins
Nov 7, 1972·European Journal of Biochemistry·H W HeldtM Milovancev
Nov 5, 1973·Journal of Theoretical Biology·P M Wiggins
Aug 1, 1967·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J B Hanson, R J Miller
Jun 1, 1969·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J T Tupper, H Tedeschi
Aug 1, 1966·Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society·P MITCHELL
Nov 1, 1970·Journal of Theoretical Biology·B E Banks, C A Vernon

Related Concepts

Tissue Membrane
Adenosine Triphosphatases
Energy Metabolism
Macromolecular Alteration

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Synapse Loss as Therapeutic Target in MS

As we age, the number of synapses present in the human brain starts to decline, but in neurodegenerative diseases this occurs at an accelerated rate. In MS, it has been shown that there is a reduction in synaptic density, which presents a potential target for treatment. Here is the latest research on synapse loss as a therapeutic target in MS.

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging

Artificial intelligence (ai) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (cv) medicine in cardiac imaging analysis. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Social Learning

Social learning involves learning new behaviors through observation, imitation and modeling. Follow this feed to stay up to date on the latest research.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Single Cell Chromatin Profiling

Techniques like ATAC-seq and CUT&Tag have the potential to allow single cell profiling of chromatin accessibility, histones, and TFs. This will provide novel insight into cellular heterogeneity and cell states. Discover the latest research on single cell chromatin profiling here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.