Mar 23, 2002

A systematic review of the skeletal effects of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. II. An assessment of treatment effects

Climacteric : the Journal of the International Menopause Society
D O'ConnellW Gillespie


To combine the results of randomized controlled trials to provide overall estimates of the effect of estrogen treatment on fracture rates and measures of bone mass. Articles on estrogen treatment for osteoporosis published between 1977 and 1995 were identified. Studies selected were randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of estrogens in preventing loss of bone mass or fractures in postmenopausal women. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed in duplicate, with assistance of a manual. Raters were blinded as to authors and their affiliations and the publication details. With estimates of bone mass, the treatment effect size was defined as the difference in the mean annual change in bone mass between the treatment and control groups divided by the pooled standard deviation for change. In the case of fractures, efficacy was measured as the reduction in the numbers of individuals experiencing new fractures with treatment. Effect sizes were pooled using the random effects model. Thirty-seven studies met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Only one small secondary prevention trial contained evaluable data on vertebral fractures. This study found a fracture relative risk of 0.63 (95% confidence inte...Continue Reading

  • References44
  • Citations29


Mentioned in this Paper

Progestogens, endocrine therapy drugs
Calcium [EPC]
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
Dose-response Relationship
Spinal Fractures
Skeletal System
Bone Mineral Density Test
Estrogens, endocrine therapy drugs

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
B R Carr
Reproduction : the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
C H Knight, A Sorensen
BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
P J BlakemanJ N Bulmer
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved