PMID: 7617530Mar 1, 1995Paper

A theoretical basis for a biopharmaceutic drug classification: the correlation of in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability

Pharmaceutical Research
G L AmidonJ R Crison


A biopharmaceutics drug classification scheme for correlating in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability is proposed based on recognizing that drug dissolution and gastrointestinal permeability are the fundamental parameters controlling rate and extent of drug absorption. This analysis uses a transport model and human permeability results for estimating in vivo drug absorption to illustrate the primary importance of solubility and permeability on drug absorption. The fundamental parameters which define oral drug absorption in humans resulting from this analysis are discussed and used as a basis for this classification scheme. These Biopharmaceutic Drug Classes are defined as: Case 1. High solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 2. Low solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 3. High solubility-low permeability drugs, and Case 4. Low solubility-low permeability drugs. Based on this classification scheme, suggestions are made for setting standards for in vitro drug dissolution testing methodology which will correlate with the in vivo process. This methodology must be based on the physiological and physical chemical properties controlling drug absorption. This analysis points out conditions under which no in vi...Continue Reading


Jan 4, 2017·Journal of Pharmaceutics·Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelhaleem Ali, Mayyas Mohammad Ahmad Al-Remawi
Jun 10, 2017·The Journal of Chemical Physics·Lunna LiDaan Frenkel
Mar 10, 2019·The Journal of Chemical Physics·Michael A BellucciBernhardt L Trout
Dec 17, 2018·The Journal of Chemical Physics·Jorge R EspinosaDaan Frenkel
Sep 20, 2017·AAPS PharmSciTech·Siyuan Huang, Robert O Williams
Aug 28, 1998·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·A LindahlH Lennernäs
Aug 7, 1999·Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics·R PähklaR A Kiivet
Mar 5, 2003·AIDS Patient Care and STDs·Sanjay GargLourens J D Zaneveld
Nov 20, 2002·The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics·Philip S BurtonBenny M Amore
Jun 14, 2003·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Peter Buchwald
Jun 14, 2003·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Hans Lennernäs
Oct 20, 2004·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Henri J VialMichèle Calas
Mar 1, 2005·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·Aristides DokoumetzidisPanos Macheras
Jul 6, 2005·Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin·Simon ZakeljAlbin Kristl
Apr 6, 2005·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Piyush Gupta, Arvind K Bansal
Jun 22, 2005·Journal of Aerosol Medicine : the Official Journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine·A SteimerC-M Lehr
Jun 23, 2005·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Heike Bunjes, Thomas Rades
Nov 25, 2005·Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy·Gladys E GraneroGordon L Amidon
Nov 22, 2005·Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery·Thorsteinn LoftssonTomi Järvinen
Jan 20, 2006·Pharmaceutical Research·Panayiotis P ConstantinidesStanley S Davis
Jul 1, 2006·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Nai-Ning SongChang-Xiao Liu
Aug 24, 2006·Pharmaceutical Research·Laura M LandPaul M Bummer
Dec 7, 2006·Archives of Pharmacal Research·Sang-Young ShimBeom-Jin Lee
Jul 13, 2006·Pharmaceutical Research·Daniel P McNamaraAeri Park
Mar 27, 2007·Pharmaceutical Research·Chong-Hui GuRonald L Smith
Apr 6, 2007·Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan·Kazutaka Higaki
Jan 16, 2007·Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics·J Schrickx, J Fink-Gremmels
Dec 29, 2006·Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy·Hadi ValizadehAli Nokhodchi
May 26, 2007·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Dionysios DouroumisAlfred Fahr
Dec 7, 2007·Biomedical Chromatography : BMC·Yue-Sheng XieChang-Xiao Liu
Jul 28, 2007·Pharmaceutical Research·Greg A KossenaChristopher J H Porter

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.