Acceleration of the body clearance of phenobarbital by oral activated charcoal

The New England Journal of Medicine
M J BergG F Johnson

Abstract

We investigated the effect of multiple oral doses of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered phenobarbital in a randomized crossover trial. Six healthy men volunteered to take 200 mg of phenobarbital sodium per 70 kg of body weight intravenously on two separate occasions. On one occasion, each subject received oral activated charcoal (180 g) in divided doses over three days after the infusion of phenobarbital. Serum levels of phenobarbital were measured in all subjects up to 96 hours after the infusion, and urinary excretion of phenobarbital was measured in two subjects 24 to 96 hours after the infusion. A pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the charcoal decreased the serum half-life of phenobarbital form 110 +/- 8 to 45 +/- 6 hours (S.E.M.) (P less than 0.01), increased the total body clearance of phenobarbital from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 12.0 +/- 1.6 ml per kilogram per hour (P less than 0.01), and increased the nonrenal clearance from 52 to 80 per cent of the total body clearance. We conclude that oral administration of activated charcoal enhances the nonrenal clearance of phenobarbital.

References

May 1, 1979·Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·C T ViswanathanP G Welling
Feb 12, 1973·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·D Heinegård, G Tiderström
Feb 1, 1982·Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·E NelsonD Perrier
May 7, 1982·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·M J Goldberg, W G Berlinger
Jun 1, 1981·Archives of Internal Medicine·J B Costello, A Poklis
Jan 1, 1980·European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·P J Neuvonen, E Elonen

Citations

Jan 1, 1985·Archives of Toxicology·H FaulstichH H Wellhöner
Feb 1, 1989·Mycopathologia·J Piqueras
Dec 12, 2007·Journal of Medical Toxicology : Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology·Trevonne M Thompson, Steven E Aks
Jun 1, 1988·Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior·J E LyddaneB R Martin
Dec 1, 1995·Toxicology Letters·F J BaudC Bismuth
May 1, 1985·The American Journal of Emergency Medicine·R S Porter, E B Baker
Sep 1, 1996·Disease-a-month : DM·E P Krenzelok, J B Leikin
Apr 9, 1999·The Journal of Emergency Medicine·J MollR Rose
Sep 9, 1982·The New England Journal of Medicine·G Levy
Jan 30, 1986·The New England Journal of Medicine·H H Harsch
Feb 1, 1985·Australian Paediatric Journal·J TibballsT C Brown
Apr 1, 1993·Pharmacology & Toxicology·N M RawashdehA K Battah
Feb 1, 1990·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·M M HasanA A Abdelaziz
Mar 1, 1990·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·J D Huang
Aug 1, 1990·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Y M el-Sayed, M M Hasan
May 1, 1987·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·R L DavisA L Smith
Feb 1, 1988·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·R L DavisA N Smith
Oct 14, 2011·International Journal of Emergency Medicine·Timothy E AlbertsonAndrew L Chan
Nov 21, 2001·Pharmacotherapy·D F Thompson, C O Church
Nov 28, 2013·American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs : Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions·Xiaoli WangCharles Frost
Jan 1, 1984·Drug Metabolism Reviews·Z H Israili, P G Dayton
Jan 1, 1985·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·A G Gallanosa, D A Spyker
Jan 1, 1986·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·J A CordonnierA M Heyndrickx
Jan 1, 1987·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·W A WatsonJ J Schentag
Jan 1, 1989·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·F HarchelroadE P Krenzelok
Jan 1, 1991·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·M VeermanM Knight
Jan 1, 1996·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·M L FreniaT A Kunisaki
Jan 1, 1994·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·Y WakabayashiT Ohwada
Jan 1, 1988·Medical Toxicology and Adverse Drug Experience·P J Neuvonen, K T Olkkola
Mar 1, 1985·Chest·F R JustinianiL O Martinez
Dec 26, 2012·Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease·Marc Ghannoum, Sophie Gosselin
May 27, 2008·Pediatric Clinics of North America·Usama A Hanhan
Dec 17, 2009·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·Anne-Bolette Jill GudeHanne Rolighed Christensen
Apr 1, 1986·Current Problems in Pediatrics·M Tenenbein
Nov 1, 1993·The American Journal of Emergency Medicine·K IlkhanipourE P Krenzelok
May 1, 1992·The American Journal of Emergency Medicine·J W Campbell, P A Chyka
Jan 1, 1987·The Journal of Emergency Medicine·B G KatonaR J Cluxton
Apr 1, 1989·Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·J L HoG E Dickinson
Dec 1, 1983·The Journal of Pediatrics·M Weinberger
Oct 1, 1986·Annals of Emergency Medicine·J JonesA Eddy
Dec 1, 1987·Annals of Emergency Medicine·G D Weichbrodt, D P Elliott
Dec 1, 1985·Annals of Emergency Medicine·E P KrenzelokR D Stewart
Aug 1, 1993·Journal of Hepatology·P RamirezM Miras
Jun 9, 2015·Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews·Nikunjkumar Patel, George P Bayliss
Feb 1, 1986·Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics·W GillespieD D Schottelius
Jul 11, 2000·Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society·O E OrisakweC N Orish
Nov 1, 1994·The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice·K J Drobatz
Oct 1, 1987·Annals of Emergency Medicine·L S MauroP Somani
Oct 1, 1984·Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics·P Veng-Pedersen, W Gillespie
Jul 1, 1990·The Journal of Emergency Medicine·Y Amitai, Y Degani
Jul 1, 1994·Human & Experimental Toxicology·K LaineP J Neuvonen
Oct 1, 1990·Annals of Emergency Medicine·A M RowdenJ S Bertino
Jan 1, 1987·Human Toxicology·T J Meredith, J A Vale
Jan 1, 1985·Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology·R Erttmann, G Landbeck
Sep 1, 1986·Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition·L J AdlerP R Gwilt
Jun 22, 2018·American Journal of Therapeutics·Frank Lee Cantrell, Christie Sun
Jan 1, 1983·Pharmacotherapy·L Hendeles, M Weinberger
Jan 1, 1995·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·S M Bradberry, J A Vale
Jun 10, 2005·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·Sage W Wiener, Robert S Hoffman
May 1, 1986·Human Toxicology·B A HulténT Hedner
Dec 20, 2018·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Bert AvauEmmy De Buck
Jun 20, 2020·European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·Hisakazu OhtaniTakeshi Akiyoshi
Aug 1, 1990·Anaesthesia and Intensive Care·A McLuckieK F Ilett
Jan 1, 1993·Postgraduate Medical Journal·J A Vale
Jun 26, 2018·Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences·Peng Yu, Dale Eric Wurster
Jan 3, 2021·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·Kenneth SkovGesche Jürgens

Related Concepts

Actidose
Clinical Trials
Parenteral Infusion
Luminal
Randomization

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare rheumatic disease that affects children. Symptoms include joint pain, but also fevers and skin rashes. Here is the latest on this disease.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia

Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are a group of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders with prenatal onset, atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, microcephaly, variable neocortical atrophy and severe mental and motor impairments. Here is the latest research on pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis

Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease that occurs in individuals that suffer repetitive brain trauma. Discover the latest research on traumatic encephalopathy here.