PMID: 11192353Feb 24, 2001Paper

Achieving optimal beta1-blockade with metoprolol CR/Zok

Basic Research in Cardiology
J Wikstrand

Abstract

The metoprolol CR/Zok is a multi-unit formulation containing metoprolol succinate controlled release (CR/Zok) in the form of individual drug delivery units (microcapsules). Each microcapsule acts as a diffusion cell and is designed to deliver metoprolol succinate at a near constant rate for about 20 hours independently of food intake, pH and other physiological variations. Taking the half-life of metoprolol into account this yields an even plasma concentration over 24 hours with a once daily dosage scheme. The formulation allows for once daily dosing, avoiding peaks and troughs in the plasma concentration of the drug. This leads to an even beta1-blockade over 24 hours in dose ranges from 12.5 mg to 200 mg once daily. Plasma fluctuations are considerably decreased compared with immediate release formulations and cardioselectivity is well maintained also on 200 mg CR/Zok. Vital important beta1-blockade is maintained for 24 hours. Metoprolol CR/Zok is well tolerated and well-being has been shown to be improved with metoprolol CR/Zok in patients with chronic heart failure as illustrated in the findings from the MERIT-HF study.

Citations

Jul 23, 2005·Current Heart Failure Reports·Kirkwood F Adams
Jan 28, 2003·Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology·John WikstrandMichael Klibaner
Oct 28, 2010·Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery·Grzegorz GarbaczWerner Weitschies
Aug 19, 2016·Hypertension Research : Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension·Tianlun YangTianrong Ma
Jan 24, 2007·American Heart Journal·Stéphane RinfretLouise Pilote
Apr 24, 2003·The Annals of Pharmacotherapy·Heather J Tangeman, J Herbert Patterson
Aug 17, 2004·Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics·Jerry L Bauman, Robert L Talbert

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Blastomycosis

Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.