DOI: 10.1101/478420Nov 26, 2018Paper

Acidity promotes tumor progression by altering macrophage phenotype in prostate cancer

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Asmaa El-KenawiRobert Gillies

Abstract

Tumors rapidly ferment glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of oxygen, and coupling high glycolysis with poor perfusion leads to extracellular acidification. Here we demonstrate that acidity, independent from lactate, augments the pro-tumor phenotype of macrophages. We used zwitterionic buffers to show that activating macrophages at pH 6.8 in vitro enhanced an IL-4-driven phenotype as measured by gene expression, cytokine profiling, and functional assays. These results were recapitulated in vivo wherein neutralizing intratumoral acidity reduced the pro-tumor phenotype of macrophages, while also decreasing tumor incidence and invasion in the TRAMP model of prostate cancer. These results were recapitulated using an in silico mathematical model that simulate macrophage responses to environmental signals. By turning off acid-induced cellular responses, our in silico mathematical modeling shows that acid-resistant macrophages can limit tumor progression. In summary, this study suggests that tumor acidity contributes to prostate carcinogenesis by altering the state of macrophage activation.

Related Concepts

Acids
Buffers
Environment
Gene Expression
Glycolysis
Interleukin-4
Macrophage Activation
Macrophage
Neoplasms
Oxygen

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