May 21, 2013

Activating transcription factor 4 is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis contributing to vascular calcification

Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Xiaohui DuanYongfen Qi


Our previous work reported that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated apoptosis was activated during vascular calcification (VC). Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and ERS-induced apoptosis. However, whether ATF4 is involved in ERS-mediated apoptosis contributing to VC remains unclear. In the present study, in vivo VC was induced in rats by administering vitamin D3 plus nicotine. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro was induced by incubation in calcifying media containing β-glycerophosphate and CaCl2. ERS inhibitors taurine or 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuated ERS and VSMC apoptosis in calcified rat arteries, reduced calcification and retarded the VSMC contractile phenotype transforming into an osteoblast-like phenotype in vivo. Inhibition of ERS retarded the VSMC phenotypic transition into an osteoblast-like cell phenotype and reduced VSMC calcification and apoptosis in vitro. Interestingly, ATF4 was activated in calcified aortas and calcified VSMCs in vitro. ATF4 knockdown attenuated ERS-induced apoptosis in calcified VSMCs. ATF4 deficiency blocked VSMC calcification and negatively regulated the osteoblast phenotypic transition of VSMCs i...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
Arterial System
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
Apoptosis, Intrinsic Pathway
ATF4 gene
Activating Transcription Factor 4

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Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis

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