It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-beta and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1beta in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1beta, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine...Continue Reading
The Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum-associated 41-kilodalton antigen (flagellin): molecular cloning, expression, and amplification of the gene.
Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the outer surface protein A (OspA) of a European Borrelia burgdorferi isolate
Characterization of outer membranes isolated from Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete.
Role of outer membrane architecture in immune evasion by Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi
Dermal inflammation elicited by synthetic analogs of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins.
Structure of the gene coding for the human early lymphocyte activation antigen CD69: a C-type lectin receptor evolutionarily related with the gene families of natural killer cell-specific receptors
Killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by macrophages is dependent on oxygen radicals and nitric oxide and can be enhanced by antibodies to outer surface proteins of the spirochete
Seasonal variation in the capacity of the bank vole to infect larval ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi
Mathematical formulae for the prediction of the residual beta cell function during the first two years of disease in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Activation of human monocytic cells by Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and synthetic lipopeptides proceeds via a pathway distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide but involves the transcriptional activator NF-kappa B.
Treponema pallidum, lipoproteins, and synthetic lipoprotein analogues induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in monocytes via NF-kappaB activation
Induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins in monocytes is mediated by CD14
Dual role of interleukin-10 in murine Lyme disease: regulation of arthritis severity and host defense
Virulent Treponema pallidum, lipoprotein, and synthetic lipopeptides induce CCR5 on human monocytes and enhance their susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1
The tetraspanin CD63/lamp3 cycles between endocytic and secretory compartments in human endothelial cells
Decorin-binding protein A (DbpA) of Borrelia burgdorferi is not protective when immunized mice are challenged via tick infestation and correlates with the lack of DbpA expression by B. burgdorferi in ticks.
CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2 is required for langerhans cell migration and localization of T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-inducing dendritic cells. Absence of CCR2 shifts the Leishmania major-resistant phenotype to a susceptible state dominated by Th2 cytokines, b cell outgrowth, and sustained neutrophilic inflammation
Interleukin-10 modulates proinflammatory cytokines in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins.
The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors
Borrelia spirochetes upregulate release and activation of matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9) and collagenase 1 (MMP-1) in human cells
Coiling phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi by primary human macrophages is controlled by CDC42Hs and Rac1 and involves recruitment of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and Arp2/3 complex
Crystal structure of outer surface protein C (OspC) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi
The cutaneous response in humans to Treponema pallidum lipoprotein analogues involves cellular elements of both innate and adaptive immunity
Adjuvanticity of alpha 2-macroglobulin, an independent ligand for the heat shock protein receptor CD91
Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease
Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method
Induction of type I and type III interferons by Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with pathogenesis and requires linear plasmid 36
MicroRNA-146a provides feedback regulation of lyme arthritis but not carditis during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi
CD14 signaling restrains chronic inflammation through induction of p38-MAPK/SOCS-dependent tolerance
The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi utilizes multiple ligands, including RNA, for interferon regulatory factor 3-dependent induction of type I interferon-responsive genes
Borrelia burgdorferi stimulation of chemokine secretion by cells of monocyte lineage in patients with Lyme arthritis
Early production of IL-22 but not IL-17 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to live Borrelia burgdorferi: the role of monocytes and interleukin-1
Invasion of eukaryotic cells by Borrelia burgdorferi requires β(1) integrins and Src kinase activity
Phagosomal signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi in human monocytes involves Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR8 cooperativity and TLR8-mediated induction of IFN-beta
Interleukin-10 alters effector functions of multiple genes induced by Borrelia burgdorferi in macrophages to regulate Lyme disease inflammation
CD14 cooperates with complement receptor 3 to mediate MyD88-independent phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi
Different patterns of expression and of IL-10 modulation of inflammatory mediators from macrophages of Lyme disease-resistant and -susceptible mice
The formins FMNL1 and mDia1 regulate coiling phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi by primary human macrophages
Mycoplasma hyorhinis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells
Borrelia burgdorferi elicited-IL-10 suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators, phagocytosis, and expression of co-stimulatory receptors by murine macrophages and/or dendritic cells
ARTD10 substrate identification on protein microarrays: regulation of GSK3β by mono-ADP-ribosylation
The Neuro-Immune Pathophysiology of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Systemic Immune-Inflammatory and Neuro-Immune Diseases
The role of vitamin D in reducing gastrointestinal disease risk and assessment of individual dietary intake needs: Focus on genetic and genomic technologies
Borrelia burgdorferi induces a type I interferon response during early stages of disseminated infection in mice
Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism
Association of a Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphism with heightened Th1 inflammatory responses and antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis
Tick sialostatins L and L2 differentially influence dendritic cell responses to Borrelia spirochetes
Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens
Immune evasion and recognition of the syphilis spirochete in blood and skin of secondary syphilis patients: two immunologically distinct compartments
Microarray analyses of inflammation response of human dermal fibroblasts to different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto
The conserved macrodomains of the non-structural proteins of Chikungunya virus and other pathogenic positive strand RNA viruses function as mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolases
Genetic Control of Lyme Arthritis by Borrelia burgdorferi Arthritis-Associated Locus 1 Is Dependent on Localized Differential Production of IFN-β and Requires Upregulation of Myostatin
Borrelia burgdorferi RNA induces type I and III interferons via Toll-like receptor 7 and contributes to production of NF-κB-dependent cytokines
Haemophilus ducreyi lipooligosaccharides induce expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase via type I interferons and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human dendritic cells
MyD88- and TRIF-independent induction of type I interferon drives naive B cell accumulation but not loss of lymph node architecture in Lyme disease
Borrelia burgdorferi Induces TLR2-Mediated Migration of Activated Dendritic Cells in an Ex Vivo Human Skin Model
A multi-omic analysis reveals the regulatory role of CD180 during the response of macrophages to Borrelia burgdorferi
Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis
Apoptotic caspases belong to the protease enzyme family and are known to play an essential role in inflammation and programmed cell death. Here is the latest research.
Advanced Imaging of Cellular Signaling
Cell signaling is a vital mechanism for communication within cells and outside with the environment. Several different signaling pathways have been found and advanced imaging techniques are being developed to visualize the molecules involved in these signaling pathways. Find the latest research in advanced imaging of cellular signaling here.
ApoE, Lipids & Cholesterol
Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (APOB)-containing lipoproteins (very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), immediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), lipoprotein A (LPA)) and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio are all connected in diseases. Here is the latest research.
This feed focuses on the AKT serine/threonine kinase, which is an important signaling pathway involved in processes such as glucose metabolism and cell survival.