Oct 16, 2003

Active oxygen species generated from photoexcited fullerene (C60) as potential medicines: O2-* versus 1O2

Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yoko YamakoshiTetsuo Nagano

Abstract

To characterize fullerenes (C(60) and C(70)) as photosensitizers in biological systems, the generation of active oxygen species, through energy transfer (singlet oxygen (1)O(2)) and electron transfer (reduced active oxygen radicals such as superoxide anion radical O(2)(-)* and hydroxyl radical *OH), was studied by a combination of methods, including biochemical (DNA-cleavage assay in the presence of various scavengers of active oxygen species), physicochemical (EPR radical trapping and near-infrared spectrometry), and chemical methods (nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) method). Whereas (1)O(2) was generated effectively by photoexcited C(60) in nonpolar solvents such as benzene and benzonitrile, we found that O(2)(-)* and *OH were produced instead of (1)O(2) in polar solvents such as water, especially in the presence of a physiological concentration of reductants including NADH. The above results, together with those of a DNA cleavage assay in the presence of various scavengers of specific active oxygen species, indicate that the active oxygen species primarily responsible for photoinduced DNA cleavage by C(60) under physiological conditions are reduced species such as O(2)(-)* and *OH.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Buckminsterfullerene
Energy Transfer
Hydroxyl Radical
Fullerene C60
Tetrazolium Salts
Electron Transport
Fullerenes
Cytokinesis of the Fertilized Ovum
Benzene
Superoxides

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