Jul 8, 2009

Acute and chronic effects of nano- and non-nano-scale TiO(2) and ZnO particles on mobility and reproduction of the freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna

Chemosphere
Karin WienchRobert Landsiedel

Abstract

Among the emerging literature addressing the biological effects of nanoparticles, very little information exists, particularly on aquatic organisms, that evaluates nanoparticles in comparison to non-nanocounterparts. Therefore, the potential effects of nano-scale and non-nano-scale TiO(2) and ZnO on the water flea, Daphnia magna, were examined in 48-h acute toxicity tests using three different test media, several pigment formulations--including coated nanoparticles--and a variety of preparation steps. In addition, a 21-d chronic Daphnia reproduction study was performed using coated TiO(2) nanoparticles. Analytical ultracentrifugation analyses provided evidence that the nanoparticles were present in a wide range of differently sized aggregates in the tested dispersions. While no pronounced effects on D. magna were observed for nano-scale and non-nano-scale TiO(2) pigments in 19 of 25 acute (48-h) toxicity tests (EC50>100 mg L(-1)), six acute tests with both nano- and non-nano-scale TiO(2) pigments showed slight effects (EC10, 0.5-91.2 mg L(-1)). For the nano-scale and non-nano-scale ZnO pigments, the acute 48-h EC50 values were close to the 1 mg L(-1) level, which is within the reported range of zinc toxicity to Daphnia. In gene...Continue Reading

  • References32
  • Citations103

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Analytical Ultracentrifugation
Daphnia magna
Aquatic Organisms
Toxicity Tests
Aggregation
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Measurement
Reproduction
Daphnia antigen
Daphnia pulex
Micropterus salmoides <fish>

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