Very little objective laboratory data are available describing the physiologic effects of stun guns or electromuscular incapacitation devices (EIDs). Unfortunately, there have been several hundred in-custody deaths, which have been temporally associated with the deployment of these devices. Most of the deaths have been attributed to specific cardiac and metabolic effects. We hypothesized that prolonged EID exposure in a model animal system would induce clinically significant metabolic acidosis and cardiovascular disturbances. Using an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved protocol, 11 standard pigs (6 experimentals and 5 sham controls) were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. The experimentals were exposed to two 40-second discharges from an EID (TASER X26, TASER Intl., Scottsdale, AZ) across the torso. Electrocardiograms, blood pressure, troponin I, blood gases, and electrolyte levels were obtained pre-exposure and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes and 24, 48, and 72 hours postdischarge. p values <0.05 were considered significant. Two deaths were observed immediately after TASER exposure from acute onset ventricular fibrillation (VF). In surviving animals, heart rate was significantly increased and significant h...Continue Reading
Assessing acid-base status in circulatory failure. Differences between arterial and central venous blood
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Mitigation of the clinical significance of spurious elevations of cardiac troponin I in settings of coronary ischemia using serial testing of multiple cardiac markers
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Lactate and pH evaluation in exhausted humans with prolonged TASER X26 exposure or continued exertion
Absence of electrocardiographic change after prolonged application of a conducted electrical weapon in physically exhausted adults
Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects
Deaths in custody: are some due to electronic control devices (including TASER devices) or excited delirium?
Pulse variations of a conducted energy weapon (similar to the TASER X26 device): effects on muscle contraction and threshold for ventricular fibrillation*
Presenting rhythm in sudden deaths temporally proximate to discharge of TASER conducted electrical weapons
Functioning and effectiveness of electronic control devices such as the TASER® M- and X-series: a review of the current literature
An animal model to investigate effectiveness and safety of conducted energy weapons (including TASER devices)
Sudden cardiac arrest and death following application of shocks from a TASER electronic control device
Cardiovascular evaluation of electronic control device exposure in law enforcement trainees: a multisite study
Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model
Funding source and author affiliation in TASER research are strongly associated with a conclusion of device safety
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