Acute kidney injury in COVID 19 - an update on pathophysiology and management modalities

Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Manoj KhokharPraveen Sharma

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI), characterised by fluid imbalance and overload, is prevalent in severe disease phenotypes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The elderly immunocompromised patients with pre-existing comorbidities being more risk-prone to severe COVID-19, the importance of early diagnosis and intervention in AKI is imperative. Histopathological examination of COVID-19 patients with AKI reveals viral invasion of the renal parenchyma and evidence of AKI. The definitive treatment for AKI includes renal replacement therapy and renal transplant. Immunosuppressant regimens and its interactions with COVID-19 have to be further explored to devise effective treatment strategies in COVID-19 transplant patients. Other supportive strategies for AKI patients include hemodynamic monitoring and maintenance of fluid balance. Antiviral drugs should be meticulously monitored in the management of these high-risk patients. We have focussed on the development of renal injury provoked by the SARS-CoV-2, the varying clinical characteristics, and employment of different management strategies, including renal replacement therapy, alongside the emerging cytokine lowering approaches.

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Related Concepts

Antiviral Agents
Coronaviridae
Diagnosis
Hemodynamics
Kidney Transplantation
Transplantation
Treatment Protocols
Cytokine
Immunocompromised Host
Injury of Kidney

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