Modern management of acute myocardial infarction is built on a clinical evidence base drawn from many studies undertaken over the past three decades. The evolution in clinical practice has substantially reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the condition. Key to this success is the effective integration of antithrombotic therapy combined with timely reperfusion, either primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and invasive investigation and revascularisation for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, underpinned by risk stratification and optimised systems of care. After the development of troponin assays for the detection of myonecrosis, the universal definition and classification of myocardial infarction now indicates the underlying pathophysiology. Additionally, an increasing appreciation of the importance of adverse events, such as bleeding, has emerged. Remaining challenges include the effective translation of this evidence to all patients with myocardial infarction, especially to those not well represented in clinical trials who remain at increased risk of adverse events, such as elderly patients and those with renal failure. On a global level, the epidem...Continue Reading
Predictors of 30-day mortality in the era of reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. Results from an international trial of 41,021 patients. GUSTO-I Investigators
An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction
Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--I: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration
Adding heparin to aspirin reduces the incidence of myocardial infarction and death in patients with unstable angina. A meta-analysis
Relationship of TIMI myocardial perfusion grade to mortality after administration of thrombolytic drugs
Predictors of outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-segment elevation. Results from an international trial of 9461 patients. The PURSUIT Investigators
Twenty-two year (1975 to 1997) trends in the incidence, in-hospital and long-term case fatality rates from initial Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: a multi-hospital, community-wide perspective
Comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable coronary syndromes treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban
Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies
Thrombin-specific anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin in patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: the HERO-2 randomised trial
Practice variation and missed opportunities for reperfusion in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: findings from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE)
Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials
Percutaneous coronary intervention versus fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction: is timing (almost) everything?
Routine invasive strategy within 24 hours of thrombolysis versus ischaemia-guided conservative approach for acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (GRACIA-1): a randomised controlled trial
Randomized trial of high loading dose of clopidogrel for reduction of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary intervention: results from the ARMYDA-2 (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) study
TIMI, PURSUIT, and GRACE risk scores: sustained prognostic value and interaction with revascularization in NSTE-ACS
Eplerenone reduces mortality 30 days after randomization following acute myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure
Early intravenous then oral metoprolol in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial
Optimal timing of intervention in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: insights from the CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines) Registry
Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism
Does time matter? A pooled analysis of randomized clinical trials comparing primary percutaneous coronary intervention and in-hospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction patients
Driving times and distances to hospitals with percutaneous coronary intervention in the United States: implications for prehospital triage of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction
The second Euro Heart Survey on acute coronary syndromes: Characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with ACS in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin in 2004
Hospital delays in reperfusion for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: implications when selecting a reperfusion strategy
Routine upstream initiation vs deferred selective use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: the ACUITY Timing trial
Antithrombotic strategies in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing early invasive management: one-year results from the ACUITY trial
Immediate angioplasty versus standard therapy with rescue angioplasty after thrombolysis in the Combined Abciximab REteplase Stent Study in Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARESS-in-AMI): an open, prospective, randomised, multicentre trial
Evolution of the definition of myocardial infarction: what are the implications of a new universal definition?
STEMI guidelines 2008--Do they influence today's myocardial infarction treatment strategies in rural areas?
B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction
Circulating microRNA: a novel potential biomarker for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in humans
Adjunctive antithrombotic therapy with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST elevation myocardial infarction: ATOLL in perspective
Troponin I is a predictor of acute cardiac events in the immediate postoperative renal transplant period
Prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in elderly people with acute myocardial infarction: prospective observational study.
Controversies in the use of drug-eluting stents for acute myocardial infarction: a critical appraisal of the data
Advances in molecular imaging of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction: shedding new light on in vivo cardiovascular biology.
High admission glucose levels increase Fas apoptosis and mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study
Plasma microRNA-133a is a new marker for both acute myocardial infarction and underlying coronary artery stenosis
C-reactive protein velocity to distinguish febrile bacterial infections from non-bacterial febrile illnesses in the emergency department.
Induction of PGC-1α expression can be detected in blood samples of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.
Risk of subsequent coronary heart disease in patients hospitalized for immune-mediated diseases: a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden.
Seven functional polymorphisms in the CETP gene and myocardial infarction risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression
Short-term effect of temperature on daily emergency visits for acute myocardial infarction with threshold temperatures
Higher serum uric acid on admission is associated with higher short-term mortality and poorer long-term survival after myocardial infarction: retrospective prognostic study.
Expression profiling and ontology analysis of long noncoding RNAs in post-ischemic heart and their implied roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury
Uncoupling of increased cellular oxidative stress and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury by directed sarcolemma stabilization
A case-cohort study of postoperative myocardial infarction: impact of anemia and cardioprotective medications
Amino-functionalization of carbon nanotubes by using a factorial design: human cardiac troponin T immunosensing application
A review of a regional primary percutaneous coronary intervention service, with a focus on door to reperfusion times: the 2012 Auckland/Northland experience
Association between serum free fatty acid levels and possible related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction
Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology
Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.