PMID: 173969Jan 1, 1975

Adaptation of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise

Medicine and Science in Sports
J O Holloszy

Abstract

Skeletal muscle adapts to endurance excerise, such as long distance running, with an increase in the capacity for aerobic metabolism. This is reflected in an increased capacity of whole homogenates and of the mitochondrial fraction of muscle to oxidize pyruvate and long chain fatty acids. Underlying this increase in the ability to obtain energy by respiration is an increase in the levels of a number of mitochondrial enzymes. These include the enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, the components of the respiratory chain that link the oxidation of succinate and NADH to oxygen, and coupling factor 1. These increases in mitochondrial enzyme activity appear to be due to an increase in enzyme protein as evidenced by a doubling of the concentration of cytochrome c and a 60% increase in the protein content of the mitochondrial fraction skeletal muscle. Electronmicroscopic studies suggest that increases in both the size and number of mitochondria are responsible for the increase in mitochondrial protein. An alteration in mitochondrial composition also occurs, with some mitochondrial enzymes increasing 2-fold, others increasing only 35% to 60%, while others, including mitochondrial alpha-glycerop...Continue Reading

References

Feb 14, 2014·Cell Stress & Chaperones·Philip L HooperLaszlo Vigh
Nov 22, 2002·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Haihong ZongGerald I Shulman
Jul 11, 2006·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Yun Chau Long, Juleen R Zierath
Jan 1, 1993·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·J D BuckleyP G Catcheside
Jan 1, 1981·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·R P FarrarD W Edington
Jan 14, 1977·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·C BouchardC Leblanc
Jan 10, 1979·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·C BouchardC Leblanc
Jan 1, 1986·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·R FlandroisM Eyssette
Jan 1, 1981·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·H A WengerT Nihei
Jan 1, 1987·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·F S AppleJ W Lampe
Jan 1, 1983·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·J R DavisJ Wheeler
Jan 1, 1988·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·N TerradosL Kaijser
Jan 1, 1992·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·S P KeithT M McLellan
Jan 1, 1984·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·P A Tesch, S Lindeberg
Aug 26, 2011·European Journal of Applied Physiology·Dustin R SlivkaBrent C Ruby
Jul 1, 1976·Acta Physiologica Scandinavica·J Henriksson, J S Reitman
Jul 1, 1977·Acta Physiologica Scandinavica·E Jansson, L Kaijser
Apr 1, 1986·Respiration Physiology·S R KayarE R Weibel
May 31, 2013·Clinical Autonomic Research : Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society·Imad T Jarjour, Laila K Jarjour
Dec 1, 1983·Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes·N SureshJ Jayaraman
Apr 9, 2010·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics·Freek G BouwmanEric van Breda
Apr 20, 2011·Journal of Cellular Physiology·Bernardo A PetrizOctávio L Franco
Feb 27, 2010·Molecular Nutrition & Food Research·Kishorchandra GohilCarroll E Cross
Sep 6, 2013·British Journal of Pharmacology·Russell H Swerdlow
Jun 24, 2004·Nutrition·Amy L HeckMolly S Bray
Aug 1, 1984·Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental·J O HillM DiGirolamo
Feb 1, 1980·Acta Physiologica Scandinavica·V KovanenE Heikkinen
Apr 7, 2015·Free Radical Biology & Medicine·James N CobleyGraeme L Close
May 28, 2013·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·Juha E PeltonenHeikki O Tikkanen
Mar 1, 1976·Acta Physiologica Scandinavica·B SaltinD Gollnick
Dec 3, 2009·Pharmaceuticals·Russell H Swerdlow
Aug 17, 2005·Journal of Applied Physiology·Michael J LaMonteTimothy S Church
Jun 22, 2002·Sports Medicine·Zuko N KubukeliSteven C Dennis
Oct 1, 1987·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·F Goubel, J F Marini

Related Concepts

Energy Transfer
Macro-Creatine Kinase
Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
Myocardium
NADH
Lactates
Hexokinase 2
Adenylate KINASE
Muscle
Myoglobin

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.