Additive effect of knockdown resistance mutations, S989P, V1016G and F1534C, in a heterozygous genotype conferring pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti in Thailand

Parasites & Vectors
Suriya PlernsubPradya Somboon


Mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene that results in knockdown resistance (kdr), is a major mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species. In Aedes aegypti, V1016G (occurring with and without S989P) and F1534C mutations are common and widely distributed throughout Asia. The G1016 allele is known to be associated with resistance to type I and II pyrethroids. The C1534 allele is primarily associated with resistance to type I pyrethroids and is known to be a recessive allele in conferring kdr. We performed crossing experiments using a P989 + G1016 homozygous mutant strain (UPK-R), a C1534 homozygous mutant strain (PMD-R) and a pyrethroid susceptible strain (PMD) to determine the insecticide susceptibility of different genotypic hybrids. Allele-specific PCR methods were used to confirm the genotypes. Metabolic resistance caused by oxidative enzymes and esterase enzymes was ruled out by the addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and bis(4-nitrophenyl)-phosphate, BNPP), respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of deltamethrin susceptibility of a S/P989 + V/G1016 + F/F1534 double heterozygous hybrid from the UPK-R × PMD cross was 0.57 (95 % CI: 0.51-0.63) μgl(-1), which was about 12-fold lower t...Continue Reading


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