DOI: 10.1101/459149Nov 1, 2018Paper

Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA 1 Associates with Orf Virus OV20.0 and Enhances Viral Replication

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Guan-Ru LiaoWei-Li Hsu

Abstract

Orf virus (ORFV) infects sheep and goats and is also an important zoonotic pathogen. The viral protein OV20.0 has been shown to suppress innate immunity by targeting the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) by multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms include a direct interaction with PKR and binding with two PKR activators, dsRNA and the cellular PKR activator (PACT), which ultimately leads to the inhibition of PKR activation. In the present study, we identified a novel association between OV20.0 and adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1). OV20.0 bound directly to the dsRNA binding domains (RBDs) of ADAR1 in the absence of dsRNA. Additionally, OV20.0 preferentially interacted with RBD1 of ADAR1, which was essential for its dsRNA binding ability and for the homodimerization that is critical for intact adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) editing activity. Finally, the association with OV20.0 suppressed the A-to-I editing ability of ADAR1, while ADAR1 played a proviral role during ORFV infection by inhibiting PKR phosphorylation. These observations revealed a new strategy used by OV20.0 to evade antiviral responses via PKR.

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