The adrenal cortex is an endocrine organ organized into concentric zones that are specialized to produce specific steroid hormones essential for life. The development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex are complex, as a fetal adrenal is first formed from a common primordium with the gonads, followed by its separation in a distinct primordium, the invasion of the adrenal primordium by neural crest-derived cells to form the medulla, and finally its encapsulation. The fetal cortex is then replaced by a definitive cortex, which will establish zonation and be maintained throughout life by regeneration relying on the proliferation, centripetal migration, and differentiation of several stem/progenitor cell populations whose activities are sex-specific. Here, we highlight the advances made, using transgenic mouse models, to delineate the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes.
Electron microscopic study of the response of the adrenocortical X-zone in mice treated with sex steroids
Modulation of DNA binding specificity by alternative splicing of the Wilms tumor wt1 gene transcript
An attempt to demonstrate cell migration from the zona glomerulosa in the prepubertal male rat adrenal cortex
Proliferative activity and cell migration in the adrenal cortex of fetal and neonatal rats: an autoradiographic study
Mice deficient in the orphan receptor steroidogenic factor 1 lack adrenal glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme in the placenta and have normal embryonic serum levels of corticosteroids
An unusual member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily responsible for X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita
A cell-specific nuclear receptor is essential for adrenal and gonadal development and sexual differentiation
The ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptors and their ligand, neuregulin-1, are essential for development of the sympathetic nervous system
Development of adrenal zonation in fetal rats defined by expression of aldosterone synthase and 11beta-hydroxylase
YAC transgenic analysis reveals Wilms' tumour 1 gene activity in the proliferating coelomic epithelium, developing diaphragm and limb
Haploinsufficiency of steroidogenic factor-1 in mice disrupts adrenal development leading to an impaired stress response
Mouse Polycomb M33 is required for splenic vascular and adrenal gland formation through regulating Ad4BP/SF1 expression.
Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors
Gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and laboratory mouse
Two-step regulation of Ad4BP/SF-1 gene transcription during fetal adrenal development: initiation by a Hox-Pbx1-Prep1 complex and maintenance via autoregulation by Ad4BP/SF-1
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination.
Targeted disruption of beta-catenin in Sf1-expressing cells impairs development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex
Developmental links between the fetal and adult zones of the adrenal cortex revealed by lineage tracing
Conditional inactivation of glucocorticoid receptor gene in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase cells impairs chromaffin cell survival
Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma cell proliferation by steroidogenic factor-1 inverse agonists.
Transgenic expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 in fetal adrenal progenitor cells leads to ectopic adrenal formation.
Shh signaling regulates adrenocortical development and identifies progenitors of steroidogenic lineages.
Steroidogenic factor 1 overexpression and gene amplification are more frequent in adrenocortical tumors from children than from adults
Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development
Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex
Conditional ablation of Gata4 and Fog2 genes in mice reveals their distinct roles in mammalian sexual differentiation
Steroidogenic Factor 1 (NR5A1) resides in centrosomes and maintains genomic stability by controlling centrosome homeostasis.
Eliminating SF-1 (NR5A1) sumoylation in vivo results in ectopic hedgehog signaling and disruption of endocrine development
Adult Stem Cells
Adult stem cells reside in unique niches that provide vital cues for their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. They hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration as a novel therapeutic strategies. Here is the latest research.